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   2022| July  | Volume 15 | Issue 7  
    Online since July 29, 2022

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Prevalence and factors associated with belief in COVID-19 vaccine efficacy in Indonesia: A cross-sectional study
Diyan Ermawan Effendi, Agung Dwi Laksono, Setia Pranata, Zainul Khaqiqi Nantabah
July 2022, 15(7):308-313
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of belief in COVID-19 vaccine efficacy and its associated factors. Methods: Due to mobility restriction, this study was conducted cross-sectionally via online platforms. The included factors were age, gender, religious identity, marital status, education level, occupation, and living with health workers. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between belief in COVID-19 vaccine with the predictors. Results: A total of 5 397 responses were taken into analysis. The prevalence of belief in COVID-19 vaccine efficacy was 62.3%. Whereas factors associated with belief in COVID-19 vaccines were being in the age of 45-54 (aOR 1.767; 95% CI 1.219-2.562), 55-64 (aOR 1.703; 95% CI 1.219-2.562), and >64 (aOR 2.136; 95% CI 1.128-4.047), completing education until the secondary level (aOR 1.354; 95% CI 1.111-1.650), working as health practitioners (aOR 2,353; 95% CI 1.655-3.344), and living with health workers (aOR 1.278, 95% CI 1.079-1.514). All religious identities including Muslim (aOR 2.447; 95% CI 1.183-5.062), Protestant (aOR 3.615; 95% CI 1.703-7.677), Catholic (aOR 4.486; 95% CI 2.015-9.987), and Hindu (aOR 3.286; 95% CI 1.410-7.655) showed significant association with belief in COVID-19 vaccine efficacy. Conclusions: A high prevalence of belief in COVID-19 vaccine efficacy was evident. Since vaccine compliance is determined by an individual’s risk-benefit perception, this study emphasizes the need of raising awareness of the benefits of COVID-19 immunization.
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Unravelling the situation of malaria misdiagnosis in India: Its adverse impact and management strategies
Gaurav Kumar, Hari Shankar
July 2022, 15(7):290-292
  824 125 -
Hurdles in achieving the goal of malaria elimination by India
Gaurav Kumar, Jaspreet Kaur, Shweta Pasi
July 2022, 15(7):287-289
  766 179 -
Mosquito larva distribution and natural Wolbachia infection in campus areas of Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
Thunyarat Surasiang, Sirilak Chumkiew, Pongsakorn Martviset, Pathanin Chantree, Mantana Jamklang
July 2022, 15(7):314-321
Objective: To determine the prevalence of mosquito larvae in campus areas and the infection rate of endosymbiotic bacteria, Wolbachia in mosquito larvae. Method: The mosquito larvae samples were collected in residential areas and academic buildings of Suranaree University of Technology located in Northeastern Thailand during 2017-2018. Mosquito species identification was performed using GLOBE mosquito protocols and Rattanarithikul & Panthusiri’s keys. The gene encoding for the surface protein of Wolbachia was amplified by PCR and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results: Armigeres sp. is the highest proportion of mosquito larvae followed by Culex spp., Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Toxorynchites spp., respectively. Aedes aegypti have breeding sites mostly in the containers found indoors, whereas the main breeding sites of Aedes albopictus were found in both outdoors and indoors. The House Index and Breteau Index for Aedes spp. was more than 5% and 20%, respectively, in both areas, indicating that these areas are dengue sensitive. The highest proportion of Wolbachia infection was found in the larvae of Culex spp. (86.21%), followed by Aedes albopictus (69.23%) and rarely detected in Aedes aegypti (9.09%). Conclusion: The present study reported the first natural infection of Wolbachia in mosquito larvae in Thailand. Our result suggested that the mosquito species containing higher proportion of Wolbachia are less likely to be vectors for dengue. Therefore, Wolbachia transfection in mosquito larvae could be applied as a biocontrol for dengue and other mosquito-borne disease prevention.
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Conventional treatments and non-PEGylated liposome encapsulated doxorubicin for visceral leishmaniasis: A scoping review
Soumya Ranjan Satapathy, Rudra Narayan Sahoo
July 2022, 15(7):293-307
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as Kala-azar, is caused by Leishmania (L.) donovani complex, which includes L. donovani and L. infantum and is associated with a high death rate as compared to the cutaneous and subcutaneous form. Treatment of VL includes chemotherapeutic agents which are associated with some major hurdles like toxicities, parenteral administration, high cost, parasite resistance and stability. Hence, there is an urgent requirement to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents or repurposing of existing drugs against VL. Developing formulation of new chemical entity for the treatment of VL is laborious, time consuming and associated with huge financial burden. However, screening of existing chemotherapeutic agents is a good alternative to avail cost-effective treatment option for VL. Non-PEGylated liposome encapsulated doxorubicin (Myocet®) is proposed as an alternative treatment option for VL in this review article. Here, we covered the fundamental aspects of VL, loophole associated with available current treatment strategies and non-PEGylated liposome encapsulated doxorubicin as a novel alternative formulation for treating VL, as this liposomal delivery system of doxorubicin might passively target the intra- cellular regions of macrophage.
  728 158 -
Genetic variation of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Gampaha and Kurunegala districts of Sri Lanka: Complementing the morphological identification
Tharaka Wijerathna, Nayana Gunathilaka, Wasana Rodrigo
July 2022, 15(7):322-331
Objective: To identity the variation of sand flies in the Gampaha and Kurunegala districts of Sri Lanka and to assess DNA barcoding as a complementing method for morphological identification. Methods: A total of 38 441 sand flies were collected from selected localities in Gampaha and Kurunegala districts using standard entomological techniques from May 2017 to December 2018. Specimens were identified using morphological features and compared with mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene- based DNA barcoding as an alternative tool. Results: Morphological and molecular identification confirmed the presence of four species under two genera (Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia). Phlebotomus argentipes was the predominant species, followed by Sergentomyia (S.) punjabensis, S. babu insularis, and an unidentified Sergentomyia sp. Phlebotomus argentipes showed a clear genetic differentiation from other species. S. babu insularis and S. punjabensis showed a higher genetic affinity to each other than the unidentified species. The unidentified Sergentomyia species is morphologically similar to S. zeylanica, but differs only in clavate gonostyle. Conclusions: DNA barcoding is an effective technique for the identification of sand flies. Further studies using molecular techniques will improve the knowledge of the cryptic diversity of Sri Lankan sand fly fauna. Establishing a reliable and standardized identification system for sand fly species in Sri Lanka is recommended.
  562 89 -
A rare presentation of Guillain-Barre syndrome with GQ1b positivity: A case report
Minu George, Neena Baby, Pradeep Mathew Koshy, Rajendran Ullatil, Sureshkumar Radhakrishnan
July 2022, 15(7):332-334
Rationale: To report a case of cervicobrachial variant of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy presenting with papilledema and GQ1b positivity. Patient concern: A 35-year-old female, 68 days postpartum, presented with headache, vomiting, and gait difficulty in swallowing with bilateral upper limb weakness and difficulty in walking, 13 days after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. Diagnosis: Guillain-Barre syndrome with GQ1b positivity. Intervention: Five cycles of plasmapheresis were given. Outcome: The patient’s clinical condition improved. Palatal weakness improved and she could walk without support. There were mild sensory symptoms involving upper limbs which gradually improved. Lessons: AIDP should be considered in case of weakness following ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. Albumino-cytological dissociation and anti-GQ1b positivity are needed to confirmed the diagnosis.
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