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   2022| January  | Volume 15 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 20, 2022

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Liposomes as immunological adjuvants and delivery systems in the development of tuberculosis vaccine: A review
Nur Ellene Mat Luwi, Suhana Ahmad, Ahmad Suhaimi Nurfatihah Azlyna, Asyikin Nordin, Maria Elena Sarmiento, Armando Acosta, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Vuk Uskoković, Rohimah Mohamud, Ramlah Kadir
January 2022, 15(1):7-16
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.332806  
Liposomes are phospholipid bilayer vesicles, which are biocompatible, biodegradable and nontoxic vehicles suitable for numerous drug and gene delivery applications. In this review, we discuss the prospect of using liposome technology in the development of a vaccine for tuberculosis. Tuberculosis remains an important health problem that requires the development of an effective vaccine, especially since the only approved vaccine for it continues to be the Bacille Calmette-Geurin (BCG) one developed 100 years ago. This review focuses on the different applications of liposomes toward achieving this goal. Numerous liposomal formulations showing prospect in the research stage and in clinical trials are discussed.
  2,347 305 -
PERSPECTIVES
Plasmodium cynomolgi: An emerging threat of zoonotic malaria species in Malaysia?
Nor Diyana Dian, Mohd Amirul Fitri A Rahim, Zulkarnain Md Idris
January 2022, 15(1):4-6
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.335698  
  2,306 278 -
SARS-CoV-2 variants: A continuing threat to global health
Balamurugan Shanmugaraj, Narach Khorattanakulchai, Waranyoo Phoolcharoen
January 2022, 15(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.334716  
  1,932 301 -
META-ANALYSIS
Antibiotic resistance pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound isolates among Chinese burn patients: A systematic review and meta analysis
Lijuan Guo, Hui Xu, Zhigang Yue
January 2022, 15(1):17-25
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.335703  
Objective: To investigate the resistance profiles to antimicrobial agents of wound-isolated Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa among Chinese burn patients. Methods: Electronic databases and manual search were used to identify eligible studies published since 2010. The objectives were pooled resistance rates for eleven common antimicrobial agents, estimated by a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying the studies into three four-year periods based on year of isolation. Results: A total of 35 studies were included. Gentamicin had the highest pooled resistance rate (56%, 95% CI 48%-64%), while meropenem had the lowest pooled resistance rate (29%, 95% CI 20%-40%). There was an increasing trend of resistance to common antimicrobial agents of wound-isolated P. aeruginosa over a span of twelve years (2009-2020). There remained the highest risk of gentamicin resistance over time in China. Subgroup analyses indicated significantly higher resistances to ceftazidime and levofloxacin from 2017 to 2020. Conclusions: Enhanced resistance to common antimicrobial agents in wound-isolated P. aeruginosa presents a challenge in burn wound management in mainland China. Effective stewardship programs should be established based on corresponding resistance profiles, thereby optimizing treatment options for hospitalized burn patients.
  1,792 241 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of schistosomiasis in mainland China: Evidence from a multi-stage continuous downscaling sentinel monitoring
Yanfeng Gong, Jiaxin Feng, Zhuowei Luo, Jingbo Xue, Zhaoyu Guo, Lijuan Zhang, Shang Xia, Shan Lv, Jing Xu, Shizhu Li
January 2022, 15(1):26-34
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.335700  
Objective: To determine the spatiotemporal distribution of Schistosoma (S.) japonicum infections in humans, livestock, and Oncomelania (O.) hupensis across the endemic foci of China. Methods: Based on multi-stage continuous downscaling of sentinel monitoring, county-based schistosomiasis surveillance data were captured from the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2005 to 2019. The data included S. japonicum infections in humans, livestock, and O. hupensis. The spatiotemporal trends for schistosomiasis were detected using a Joinpoint regression model, with a standard deviational ellipse (SDE) tool, which determined the central tendency and dispersion in the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis. Further, more spatiotemporal clusters of S. japonicum infections in humans, livestock, and O. hupensis were evaluated by the Poisson model. Results: The prevalence of S. japonicum human infections decreased from 2.06% to zero based on data of the national schistosomiasis surveillance sites of China from 2005 to 2019, with a reduction from 9.42% to zero for the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in livestock, and from 0.26% to zero for the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in O. hupensis. Analysis using an SDE tool showed that schistosomiasis-affected regions were reduced yearly from 2005 to 2014 in the endemic provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, and Anhui, as well as in the Poyang and Dongting Lake regions. Poisson model revealed 11 clusters of S. japonicum human infections, six clusters of S. japonicum infections in livestock, and nine clusters of S. japonicum infections in O. hupensis. The clusters of human infection were highly consistent with clusters of S. japonicum infections in livestock and O. hupensis. They were in the 5 provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui, and Jiangsu, as well as along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Humans, livestock, and O. hupensis infections with S. japonicum were mainly concentrated in the north of the Hunan Province, south of the Hubei Province, north of the Jiangxi Province, and southwestern portion of Anhui Province. In the 2 mountainous provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan, human, livestock, and O. hupensis infections with S. japonicum were mainly concentrated in the northwestern portion of the Yunnan Province, the Daliangshan area in the south of Sichuan Province, and the hilly regions in the middle of Sichuan Province. Conclusions: A remarkable decline in the disease prevalence of S. japonicum infection was observed in endemic schistosomiasis in China between 2005 and 2019. However, there remains a long-term risk of transmission in local areas, with the highest-risk areas primarily in Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake regions, requiring to focus on vigilance against the rebound of the epidemic. Development of high-sensitivity detection methods and integrating the transmission links such as human and livestock infection, wild animal infection, and O. hupensis into the surveillance-response system will ensure the elimination of schistosomiasis in China by 2030.
  1,509 265 -
An immunoglobulin Y that specifically binds to an in silico-predicted unique epitope of Zika virus non-structural 1 antigen
Leonardo A Guevarra, Scott Dean P. De Sagon, Treena Rica D. Teh, Maria Katrina Diana M. Cruz, Nikki Cyrill C. Capistrano, Austine James Z Sta. Maria, Laarni Grace M. Corales, Leslie Michelle M. Dalmacio
January 2022, 15(1):35-43
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.335701  
Objective: To identify unique immunogenic epitopes of Zika virus non-structural 1 (NS1) antigen and produce immunoglobulin Y (IgY) for potential use in he diagnosis of of Zika virus infection. Methods: Immunogenic epitopes were identified using in silico B-cell epitope prediction. A synthetic peptide analog of the predicted epitope was used to induce antipeptide IgY production in hens which was purified using affinity chromatography. Presence of purified IgY and its binding specificity were performed by gel electrophoresis and ELISA, respectively. Results: Out of the nine continuous epitopes identified, the sequence at position 193-208 (LKVREDYSLECDPAVI) was selected and used to produce anti-peptide IgY. The produced IgY was found to bind to the synthetic analog of the Zika virus NS1 immunogenic epitope but not to other flaviviruses and random peptides from other pathogens. Conclusions: In this study, we identified an immunogenic epitope unique to Zika virus that can be used to develop a serodiagnostic tool that specifically detect Zika virus infection.
  1,507 211 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Disease progression after discontinuation of corticosteroid treatment in a COVID-19 patient with ARDS
Lam Nguyen-Ho
January 2022, 15(1):47-48
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.335702  
  1,427 141 -
CASE REPORT
Endophthalmitis caused by Bacteroides fragilis after pars plana vitrectomy and treatment approach
Hakan Yildirim, Mehmet Balbaba, Turgut Yilmaz, Zülal Asci Toraman
January 2022, 15(1):44-46
DOI:10.4103/1995-7645.331259  
Rationale: Endophthalmitis is an uncommon but serious ocular infection often resulting in probable visual loss. Bacteroides fragilis is a rare cause of endophthalmitis. Patient concerns: A 46-year-old male patient complained of eye pain and low vision after pars plana vitrectomy. Diagnosis: Bacteroides fragilis endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy was diagnosed. Interventions: Pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil implantation were performed. Outcomes: Early treatment and choice of tamponade in endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy may possibly prevent evisceration and progression of endophthalmitis. Lessons: Bacteroides fragilis can be seen in cases of endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy.
  1,037 118 -