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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2021| June  | Volume 14 | Issue 6  
    Online since June 25, 2021

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Ivermectin as an adjunct treatment for hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients: A randomized multi-center clinical trial
Morteza Shakhsi Niaee, Peyman Namdar, Abbas Allami, Leila Zolghadr, Amir Javadi, Amin Karampour, Mehran Varnaseri, Behzad Bijani, Fatemeh Cheraghi, Yazdan Naderi, Fatemeh Amini, Masoumeh Karamyan, Mohammad Jafar YadYad, Ramin Jamshidian, Nematollah Gheibi
June 2021, 14(6):266-273
Objective: To evaluate different doses of ivermectin in adult patients with mild COVID-19 and to evaluate the effect of ivermectin on mortality and clinical consequences. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial was performed at five hospitals. A total of 180 mild hospitalized patients with COVID-19 confirmed by PCR or chest image tests were enrolled and allocated to six arms including hydroxychloroquine 200 mg twice per day, placebo plus hydroxychloroquine 200 mg twice per day, single dose ivermectin (200 μg/kg), three low interval doses of ivermectin (200, 200, 200 μg/kg), single dose ivermectin (400 μg/kg), and three high interval doses of ivermectin (400, 200, 200 μg/kg). The primary endpoint of this trial was all-cause of mortality or clinical recovery. The radiographic findings, hospitalization and low O2 saturation duration, and hematological variables of blood samples were analyzed. Results: A total of 16.7% (5/30) and 20.0% (6/30) patients died in arms treated with hydroxychloroquine 200 mg twice per day and placebo plus hydroxychloroquine 200 mg twice per day, respectively, and a reduction in mortality rate in patients receiving ivermectin treatment to 0%, 10%, 0% and 3.3% for arms 1-4 were observed. Risk of mortality was also decreased about 15% in the ivermectin treated arms. Conclusions: Ivermectin as an adjunct reduces the rate of mortality, time of low O2 saturation, and duration of hospitalization in adult COVID-19 patients. The improvement of other clinical parameters shows that ivermectin, with a wide margin of safety, had a high therapeutic effect on COVID-19.
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Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients: A report of two cases
Camila F Araujo, Iara B N Oliveira, Murilo B Silveira, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias
June 2021, 14(6):281-284
Rationale: Co-infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Leishmania spp. has impact on clinical and therapeutic outcomes of leishmaniases. Most studies do not present the identification of Leishmania species causing American tegumentary leishmaniasis in co-infections. In the Americas, Leishmania (L.) Viannia (V.) braziliensis and L. (V.) guyanensis have been identified. Patient concerns: In this study, two cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in patients infected with HIV are described. Patients presented several lesions with rapid dissemination and mucosal involvement. Diagnosis: Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. amazonensis was identified by molecular test. Interventions: The patients were treated with conventional therapies for HIV infection and American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Outcomes: In co-infection, the clinical manifestations are atypical and the treatment response can be impaired. Lessons: These cases show that HIV infection impacts L. amazonensis infection and point to the relevance of identifying Leishmania species, which can lead to a better patient management.
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Severe eosinophilia associated with hydroxychloroquine use in a patient with COVID-19
Resat Ozaras, Altan Bayar, Niiar Alioglu, Semiha Baysoy
June 2021, 14(6):285-286
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Expert consensus on prevention and cardiopulmonary resuscitation for cardiac arrest in COVID-19
Wei Song, Jie Wei, Xiangdong Jian, Deren Wang, Yanhong Ouyang, Yuanshui Liu, Xianjin Du, Ying Chen, Yingqi Zhang, Heping Xu, Shuming Xianyu, Qiong Ning, Xiang Li, Xiaotong Han, Feng Zhan, Tao Yu, Wenteng Chen, Jun Zhang, Wenwei Cai, Sheng’ang Zhou, Shengyang Yi, Yu Cao, Xiaobei Chen, Shunjiang Xu, Zong’an Liang, Duohu Wu, Fen Ai, Zhong Wang, Qingyi Meng, Yuhong Mi, Sisen Zhang, Rongjia Yang, Shouchun Yan, Wenbin Han, Yong Lin, Chuanyun Qian, Wenwu Zhang, Yan Xiong, Jun Lv, Baochi Liu, Yan Cao, Xiaojun He, Xuelian Sun, Yufang Cao, Tian’en Zhou
June 2021, 14(6):241-253
Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) strategies in COVID-19 patients differ from those in patients suffering from cardiogenic cardiac arrest. During CPR, both healthcare and non-healthcare workers who provide resuscitation are at risk of infection. The Working Group for Expert Consensus on Prevention and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Cardiac Arrest in COVID-19 has developed this Chinese Expert Consensus to guide clinical practice of CPR in COVID-19 patients. Main recommendations: 1) A medical team should be assigned to evaluate severe and critical COVID-19 for early monitoring of cardiac-arrest warning signs. 2) Psychological counseling and treatment are highly recommended, since sympathetic and vagal abnormalities induced by psychological stress from the COVID-19 pandemic can induce cardiac arrest. 3) Healthcare workers should wear personal protective equipment (PPE). 4) Mouth-to-mouth ventilation should be avoided on patients suspected of having or diagnosed with COVID-19. 5) Hands-only chest compression and mechanical chest compression are recommended. 6) Tracheal-intubation procedures should be optimized and tracheal-intubation strategies should be implemented early. 7) CPR should be provided for 20-30 min. 8) Various factors should be taken into consideration such as the interests of patients and family members, ethics, transmission risks, and laws and regulations governing infectious disease control. Changes in management: The following changes or modifications to CPR strategy in COVID-19 patients are proposed: 1) Healthcare workers should wear PPE. 2) Hands-only chest compression and mechanical chest compression can be implemented to reduce or avoid the spread of viruses by aerosols. 3) Both the benefits to patients and the risk of infection should be considered. 4) Hhealthcare workers should be fully aware of and trained in CPR strategies and procedures specifically for patients with COVID-19.
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A nomogram for predicting acute respiratory distress syndrome in COVID-19 patients
Ning Ding, Yang Zhou, Guifang Yang, Xiangping Chai
June 2021, 14(6):274-280
Objective: To predict the in-hospital incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients by developing a predictive nomogram. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to Changsha Public Health Centre between 30 January 2020, and 22 February 2020 were enrolled in this study. Clinical characteristics and laboratory variables were analyzed and compared between patients with or without ARDS. Clinical characteristics and laboratory variables that were risk factors of ARDS were screened by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator binary logistic regression. Based on risk factors, a prediction model was established by logistic regression and the final nomogram prognostic model was performed. The calibration curve was applied to evaluate the consistency between the nomogram and the ideal observation. Results: A total of 113 patients, including 99 non-ARDS patients and 14 ARDS patients were included in this study. Eight variables including hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cough, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, white blood count, body temperature, and heart rate were included in the model. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve, specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of the full model were 0.969, 1.000, 0.857, and 0.875, respectively. The calibration curve also showed good agreement between the predicted and observed values in the model. Conclusions: The nomogram can be used to predict the in-hospital incidence of ARDS in COVID-19 patients.
  - 1,809 216
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever from the immunopathogenesis, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic perspective: A scoping review
Mohammad Ali Hamidinejad, Hadi Esmaeili Gouvarchin Ghaleh, Mahdieh Farzanehpour, Masoumeh Bolandian, Ruhollah Dorostkar
June 2021, 14(6):254-265
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is responsible for widespread tick-borne zoonotic viral disease CCHF in African, Middle Eastern, Asian, and European countries. CCHFV can be spread to humans through tick bites or contact with infected animals or humans, and it often progresses from asymptomatic to severe/lethal illness, with fatality rates ranging from 10% to 40% in humans. Today, CCHF is growing into a significant public health concern due to its very high prevalence, severity of the condition, and lack of available vaccines and specific treatments. Recent research has been drawn towards a more accurate study of CCHFV characteristics, including the structure, genetic diversity, mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and immunopathogenesis, and clinical features. In addition, the use of animal models (mouse and non-human primates) and advanced diagnostic tools in recent years has resulted in a significant advance in CCHF related studies. In this context, we summarized the latest findings about CCHF research, its health complications, animal models, current diagnosis, vaccination, and CCHF treatments, and therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, we discussed existing deficiencies and problems in CCHFV analysis, as well as areas that still need to yield conclusive answers.
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