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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2021| March  | Volume 14 | Issue 3  
    Online since February 2, 2021

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Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in animals in Iran: A systematic review and metaanalysis
Mohammad Jokar, Mohammad Hasan Rabiee, Saied Bokaie, Vahid Rahmanian, Paria Dehesh, Hamideh Hasannejad, Kiavash Hushmandi, Hadi Keshipour
March 2021, 14(3):99-112
Objective: To review the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among animal population of Iran. Methods: Data were systematically gathered from 1 January 2000 to 1 January 2020 in the Islamic Republic of Iran from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Springer, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, and Scientific Information Database (SID). According to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) and inclusion criteria, 88 eligible studies were obtained. Results: The pooled prevalence of cryptosporidiosis using random and fixed effects model according to heterogeneity among animals was as follows: rodents 18.8% (95% CI 12.6%-25.0%), camels 17.1% (95% CI 8.6%-25.7%), cattle 16.8% (95% CI 13.4%-20.1%), goats 14.1% (95% CI 5.2%-23.0%), horses 12.2% (95% CI 8.3%- 16.2%), birds 10.5% (95% CI 7.6%-13.4%), sheep 9.9% (95% CI 2.4%-4.9%), cats 8.8% (95% CI 4.8%-12.8%) and dogs 3.7% (95% CI 7.0%-12.8%). Conclusions: Cryptosporidiosis has been reported and present in a wide range of animals in Iran over the years and has a high prevalence in most of these species.
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How knowledge of hepatitis B disease and vaccine influences vaccination practices among parents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Giao Huynh, Le An Pham, Thien Thuan Tran, Ngoc Nga Cao, Thi Ngoc Han Nguyen, Quang Vinh Bui
March 2021, 14(3):122-127
Objective: To assess the influences of the knowledge of parents about hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the benefit of HBV vaccination on the practice of HBV vaccination among children. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study recruited parents whose children, aged 12-24 months, received HBV vaccination at Commune Health Centers (CHCs) in Ho Chi Minh City from Feb. 2016 to Jul. 2017. Parents were interviewed using a questionnaire that included 11-item binary knowledge questions and checked their children's vaccination cards. Results: A total of 768 parents had a mean age of (30.8±5.1) years. The mean knowledge score of the 11- item questions was (7.0±2.4). The knowledge score was positively associated with full and timely HBV vaccination. In addition, children who received complete and timely HBV vaccination were significantly more likely to live in rural areas (Adjusted OR 4.02, 95% CI 2.79-5.79, P<0.001). Also, children whose parents received vaccination information from health care providers, and had knowledge about HBV risk, had a higher rate of full and timely HBV vaccination (Adjusted OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.13-2.29, and Adjusted OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, P all<0.05). Conclusions: Parents possessed a great deal of incorrect knowledge about HBV. More health education from health care providers should target parents living in specific locations and focus on the benefits of HBV vaccine.
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In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of new synthetic derivatives of 1-(heteroaryl)-2- ((5-nitroheteroaryl)methylene) hydrazine
Azar Tahghighi, Akram Abouie Mehrizi, Sedigheh Zakeri
March 2021, 14(3):128-138
Objective: To evaluate new compounds synthesized by integrating quinoline, quinazoline, and acridine rings with the active moiety of (5-nitroheteroaryl) methylene hydrazine. Methods: A new series of compounds (1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, and 3b) were synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity against COS-7 cells using the MTT assay. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of the compounds was measured against CQ-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (K1) Plasmodium (P.) falciparum strains. β-hematin assay was performed to assess the inhibitory effects of β-hematin formation for new compounds. Results: The synthetic compounds had anti-plasmodial activity against blood-stage of 3D7 [IC50=(0.328-5.483) μM] and K1 [IC50=(0.622-7.746) μM] strains of P. falciparum, with no cytotoxicity against COS-7 cells in effective doses. Compounds 1a, 1b, and 2b were the most effective derivatives against P. falciparum 3D7 and K1 strains. Based on the β-hematin assay, the inhibition of β-hematin formation is the main mechanism of the inhibitory effect of these compounds. Conclusions: The synthetic compounds could inhibit the erythrocytic stages of CQ-sensitive and resistant P. falciparum strains without toxicity towards mammalian cells. Compounds 1b, 2a, and 2b had comparable anti-plasmodial activity against both CQ-sensitive (3D7) and resistant (K1) P. falciparum strains. These compounds may be promising lead structures for the development of new anti-malarial drugs.
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Prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections among school-age children in the Cagayan Valley, the Philippines
Ryan V Labana, Vimar A Romero, Analette M Guinto, Alvin N Caril, Kimberly D Untalan, Alejandro Jose C. Reboa, Khristine L Sandoval, Kristel Joy S. Cada, Gary Antonio C. Lirio, Iris Rowena A. Bernardo, Lanieleen Jerah Mae Arocha, Julieta Z Dungca
March 2021, 14(3):113-121
Objective: To identify the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) among school-age children in the Cagayan Valley, the Philippines, assess their level of awareness on the disease, and determine predisposing factors of the disease. Methods: A total of 478 Grades III-V school-age children in Pamplona and Sanchez-Mira School Districts in the Cagayan Valley answered the questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitude, and practices on STH, subjected to anthropometric measurements, and provided faecal samples for parasitologic assessment (direct smear, Kato-Katz, and formol-ether concentration techniques). Results: The participants of the study, with 55.86% females, were 8 to 14 years old. Their nutritional status was assessed ‘normal’ (84.31%), ‘severely wasted’ (6.49%), ‘wasted’ (5.23%), ‘overweight’ (2.72%), and ‘obese’ (1.26%). The prevalence of infection with at least 1 STH species was 25.99% in Pamplona and 19.40% in Sanchez- Mira. Overall, the prevalence of heavy intensity was 7.11% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 1.67% for Trichuris trichiura. All hookworm infections had light intensities. The majority of the school-age children had a low score in the KAP test. In knowledge of STH, ‘stunted growth as a symptom of infection’ was associated with a lower risk of Ascaris lumbricoides infection (OR 0.448; 95% CI 0.212, 0.945; P=0.035) while ‘playing with soil as a mode of transmission’ was associated with an increased risk of Ascaris lumbricoides infection (OR 2.067; 95% CI 1.014, 4.212; P=0.046). In attitude towards STH, ‘I think I have intestinal worm now’ was associated with a higher risk of Ascaris lumbricoides infection (OR 1.681; 95% CI 1.061, 2.662; P=0.027). Conclusions: The prevalence rate of Ascaris lumbricoides among the school-age children in the Cagayan Valley shows the need to further intensify intervention in the area to meet the threshold set by the World Health Organization. The identified predictors of infection, which concerns the school-age children's knowledge and attitude toward STH, can be used in augmenting intervention programs in the future.
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Burkholderia pseudomallei infection manifests as mediastinal/hilar lymphadenopathy: A case report
Qi Li, Qian-Feng Xia, Qiong-Fang Sun, Xiang-Dong Zhou
March 2021, 14(3):139-142
Rationale: This case report presents the diagnosis and etiology of hilar/mediastinal lymphadenopathy in a male patient. Patient concerns: A 49-year-old man presented with fever and dyspnea after physical exertion. Diagnosis: The patient was diagnosed with melioidosis by cultivation of lymph node aspirate on blood agar using the VITEK 2 compact system. Interventions: The patient was treated with ceftazidime intravenously, combined with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole orally for 1 week. Once the patient was discharged, he began a 12-week course of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Outcomes: The patient recovered after treatment with ceftazidime and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Conclusions: Melioidosis is an infectious disease that mainly occurs in tropical regions. It can cause severe sepsis and pneumonia, and the infection in some patients may become chronic. Endobronchial ultrasound-transbronchial needle aspiration is a useful technique in the diagnosis of patients with hilar/mediastinal lymphadenopathy.
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SARS-CoV-2 may impair pancreatic function via basigin: A single-cell transcriptomic study of the pancreas
Qiu-Ran Wang
March 2021, 14(3):143-144
  - 1,188 153
Genotype 4 reassortant Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine flu virus: An emerging public health challenge
Rina Tilak, Sajal Bhattacharya, Shakya Sinha
March 2021, 14(3):97-98
  - 2,992 333