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   2020| September  | Volume 13 | Issue 9  
    Online since August 5, 2020

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Soil-transmitted helminth egg contamination from soil of indigenous communities in selected barangays in Tigaon, Camarines Sur, Philippines
James Owen C Delaluna, Mary Jane C Flores, Vicente Y Belizario, Jose Isagani B Janairo, Derick Erl P Sumalapao
September 2020, 13(9):409-414
Objective: To provide baseline data on the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis egg contamination in the soil among indigenous communities. Methods: A total of 317 soil samples from three barangays of indigenous communities communities in Tigaon, Camarines Sur, Philippines were examined for soil-transmitted helminthiasis egg contamination using optimized sugar flotation method. Results: Of the soil samples examined, 141 (44.48%) were contaminated by Ascaris spp., Toxocara spp., and Trichuris spp. with cumulative prevalence varying across the study sites (P<0.01). Ascaris spp. was predominant in all study sites, followed by Toxocara spp. and Trichuris spp. with a prevalence of 41.96%, 7.57%, and 5.36%, respectively. Interestingly, Toxocara pp. has the highest intensity of contamination, followed by Ascaris spp. and Trichuris spp. in term of geometric mean soil-transmitted helminthiasis eggs recovered per one gram soil sample (34.25, 21.45, and 11.85 respectively). Each study site harbors significant amount of soil-transmitted helminthiasis eggs and zoonotic Toxocara eggs, which present high risk of soil-transmitted helminthiasis infection, particularly among children observed to play and cohabitate with animals known to be hosts of these parasites. Conclusions: The alarming rate of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and Toxocara egg contamination reported in this study suggests that additional measures should be undertaken to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis and zoonotic intestinal infections in the country.
  4,611 353 2
Knowledge of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among healthcare providers: A cross-sectional study in Indonesia
Kurnia Fitri Jamil, Wira Winardi, Amanda Yufika, Samsul Anwar, Nurfanida Librianty, Nyoman Ananda Putri Prashanti, Tri Novita Wulan Sari, Prattama Santoso Utomo, Theresia Dwiamelia, Putu Pangestu Cendra Natha, Salwiyadi Salwiyadi, Febrivan Wahyu Asrizal, Ikram Ikram, Irma Wulandari, Sotianingsih Haryanto, Nice Fenobileri, Abram L Wagner, Mudatsir Mudatsir, Harapan Harapan
September 2020, 13(9):402-408
Objective: To assess healthcare workers’ knowledge of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the early phase of the outbreak in Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 12 hospitals in Indonesia from March 6 to March 25, 2020. Healthcare workers’ knowledge on COVID-19 was assessed, and demographic data, workplace characteristics, and medical professional characteristics as well as the current local situation of COVID-19 were collected. To characterize determinants associated with knowledge, a logistic regression analysis was employed. Results: Out of 288 healthcare workers who completed the interview-assisted questionnaire, 149 (51.7%) respondents had a good knowledge. Nurses and other types of healthcare workers had lower odds of having good knowledge compared to doctors: adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.38; 95% CI: 0.20-0.72 and aOR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.13-0.73, respectively. Compared to healthcare workers who had medical practice experience less than 5 years, those who had worked for more than 10 years had lower knowledge (aOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.20-0.90). Healthcare workers who worked in the infection department had higher knowledge compared to those in the emergency room (aOR: 14.33; 95% CI: 3.67-55.88). Conclusions: The knowledge of COVID-19 among surveyed healthcare workers was relatively low. The COVID-19 response in Indonesia will require further education and enhancement of the capacity of healthcare workers in the emergency room where COVID-19 patients may be treated the earliest.
  4,285 599 3
Larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts and isolated compounds from Annonaceae and Piperaceae against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Alzeir M Rodrigues, Victor Emanuel P Martins, Selene M Morais
September 2020, 13(9):384-396
The Aedes (Ae.) aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are vectors of epidemiologically relevant arboviruses in the public health context, such as the dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses. Among the alternatives to synthetic insecticides for the control of these vectors, the use of natural plant products deserves attention. This review summarizes findings on the larvicidal potential of plant extracts on Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, as well as the potential of isolated compounds from plants of the Annonaceae and Piperaceae families against these vectors. Descriptors related to larvicidal activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds in Aedes spp. in the Web of Science database were used, for plant extracts considering publications between 2000 and 2019. A total of 859 articles were analyzed for plant extracts and estimates of lethal concentration values (LC50 and LC90). In the end, 95 articles that presented the larvicidal potential of 150 plant species from 52 families were analyzed. The two families most studied for this activity were Fabaceae and Asterace Aedes. The plant families with the best LC50 values against mosquitoes were Piperaceae and Annonaceae. Larvicidal activity of 50 acetogenins has already been identified on Ae. aegypti, and 29 of them presented LC50 below 10 μg/mL, as well as the larvicidal activity of 8 compounds isolated from Piperaceae. Therefore, plants of these two families are promising for the development of commercial botanical larvicides in the form of extracts and isolated substances, as well as the production via organic synthesis of the most active compounds.
  2,982 450 3
Treatment for COVID-19 patients in Vietnam: Analysis of time-to-recovery
Khuong Quynh Long, Hoang Hong Hanh, Tran Thi Tuyet Hanh, La Ngoc Quang, Hoang Van Minh
September 2020, 13(9):397-401
Objective: To describe the recovery time and related factors among COVID-19 patients in Vietnam. Methods: We used the secondary data obtained from the official database of the Ministry of Health of Vietnam and other public data sources that were available by April 9th, 2020. Cox proportional hazards model was carried out to identify factors related to recovery time among COVID-19 patients. Results: By April 9th, 2020, the cumulative number of COVID-19 cases detected in Vietnam was 255, of which 129 (50.6%) patients had fully recovered. The median recovery time of patients was 17 (95% CI=16-19) days. Older patients had a lower likelihood of recovery (HR=0.98, 95% CI=0.97-0.99, P<0.001), whereas patients with a history of international incoming travel had a higher likelihood of recovery (HR=1.57, 95% CI=1.03-2.40, P=0.036). There was no statistically significant difference in the recovery time of patients treated in different hospital settings. Conclusions: More attention is needed for older patients and who did not have international travel history. Patients confirmed with COVID-19 could be treated at local health facilities to avoid unnecessary referrals and burdens to specialized hospitals at the central level.
  2,290 276 2
Lymphopenia as a marker for disease severity in COVID-19 patients: A metaanalysis
Praveen Devanandan, Ranadheer Chowdary Puvvada, Vijey Aanandhi Muthukumar
September 2020, 13(9):426-428
  2,222 210 1
COVID-19 and zoonosis: Control strategy through One Health approach
Issa Atanda Muraina
September 2020, 13(9):381-383
  2,028 386 4
Morphometric analysis of sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), Sergentomyia anodontis Quate and Fairchild, 1961, populations in caves of southern Thailand
Nattapong Maneeroth, Nawee Noonanant, Kanaphot Thongkhao, Theerakamol Pengsakul
September 2020, 13(9):415-422
Objective: To determine the morphological characteristics of variations in populations of female adult sand fly, Sergentomyia anodontis Quate and Fairchild, 1961 in caves in southern Thailand using morphometric analysis. Methods: A total of 107 female Sergentomyia anodontis were isolated from 651 sand flies captured by CDC light traps overnight in caves in Surat Thani, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Satun and Songkhla provinces from February to December 2017. Measurement of 23 external and internal morphological characteristics was conducted. Data were tested with preliminary statistics (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene’s test and Box’s test of equality of covariance matrices) and by one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test. Measurements were analyzed using canonical discriminant analysis. Results: There were 11 morphological characteristics with high variability while two characteristics exhibited low variation. The sand fly populations from Nakhon Si Thammarat, Satun and Songkhla provinces were very similar but were separate from that in Surat Thani province based on canonical discriminant analysis data. This indicates that the morphological variation founding is a result of the diversity of habitats in each population and the geographic features of caves in each area, such as their altitude above sea level. Conclusions: There is a certain variation in the morphology of Sergentomyia anodontis sand flies at the population level which may be used for future classification of sand flies.
  1,445 231 -
Performance and correlation of QuantiFERON-TB Gold, T-SPOT.TB and tuberculin skin test in young children with tuberculosis exposure or tuberculosis disease
Keswadee Lapphra, Paninun Srinuchasart, Sansnee Senawong, Utane Rungpanich, Pinklow Umrod, Alan Maleesatharn, Nantaka Kongstan, Watcharee Lermankul, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit
September 2020, 13(9):423-425
Objective: To evaluate the performance of interferon gamma release assays and tuberculin skin test in Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccinated young children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in healthy children younger than 5 years who were recently diagnosed with tuberculosis or had recent exposure to active tuberculosis. QuantiFERON-TB Gold, T-SPOT.TB and tuberculin skin test were performed in each patient. Results: Of the 60 children, median age 3.3 years, 17 had tuberculosis and 43 had recent tuberculosis exposure. Overall, 15 (25.0%) children had tuberculin skin test reaction ≥ 10 mm; 8 (13.3%) were positive by QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test, and 12 (20.0%) by T-SPOT.TB. Nineteen (31.7%) children had at least one positive test. There was a moderate agreement between interferon gamma release assays and tuberculin skin test. Conclusions: The positive rates of interferon gamma release assays and tuberculin skin test were low in young children who were infected with tuberculosis, supporting the management strategy without testing in children younger than 5 years.
  1,178 172 -