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   2020| June  | Volume 13 | Issue 6  
    Online since June 3, 2020

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Knowledge and attitude toward COVID-19 among healthcare workers at District 2 Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City
Giao Huynh, Thi Ngoc Han Nguyen, Van Khanh Tran, Kim Ngan Vo, Van Tam Vo, Le An Pham
June 2020, 13(6):260-265
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) among healthcare workers at District 2 Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed between January 2020 and February 2020 at District 2 Hospital. A systematic random sampling strategy was carried out and the data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire of the knowledge and attitude of healthcare workers regarding COVID-19. Descriptive analysis was reported to describe the demographic, mean knowledge and attitude score of healthcare workers. Inferential statistics including t-test, ANOVA and Spearman’s correlation were used to evaluate the relationship between study variables. Results: A total of 327 eligible healthcare workers had a mean score of knowledge and attitude of 8.17±1.3 (range 4-10) and 1.86±0.43 (range 1-5), respectively. They showed good knowledge and a positive attitude. However, approximately two thirds of the participants knew the mode of transmission, the isolation period and treatment (67.0%, 65.8%, and 58.4%, respectively), and 82.3% and 79.8%, respectively, held positive attitude regarding the risk of personal and family members getting illness. There was a negative correlation between knowledge scores and attitude scores (r=-0.21, P<0.001). Additionally, healthcare workerspredominately used social media to inform themselves about COVID-19 (91.1%). Conclusions: The majority of healthcare workers had good knowledge and positive attitude toward COVID-19. However, the level of some knowledge and attitude lower than that expected for their position level towards the virus. Additional education interventions and campaigns are required for healthcare workers.
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Psychological impacts of the COVID-19 epidemic on Chinese people: Exposure, post-traumatic stress symptom, and emotion regulation
Hong-juan Jiang, Jiang Nan, Zhi-yue Lv, Juan Yang
June 2020, 13(6):252-259
Objective: To examine the effects of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) exposure, expressive suppression/cognitive reappraisal, and demographic variables on post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTS) among Chinese. Methods: Participants were recruited by social media through WeChat and 6 049 Chinese (aged from 17 to 63 years; median=24) from 31 provinces were included in the study. PTS symptoms, expressive suppression, and cognitive reappraisal were assessed after the outbreak of COVID-19. A regression mixture analysis was conducted in Mplus 7. Results: A regression mixture model identified three latent classes that were primarily distinguished by differential effects of COVID- 19 exposures on PTS symptoms: (1) Class 1 (mildly PTS symptoms, 80.9%), (2) Class 2 (moderate PTS symptoms, 13.0%), and (3) Class 3 (high PTS symptoms, 6.1%). The results demonstrated that the young, women and people with responsibilities and concerns for others were more vulnerable to PTS symptoms; and they had more expression inhibition and less cognitive reappraisal in three latent classes. Conclusions: The findings suggest that more attention needs to be paid to vulnerable groups such as the young, women and people with responsibilities and concerns for others. Therapies to encourage emotional expression and increase cognitive reappraisal may also be helpful for trauma survivors.
  13,663 1,529 39
The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic: A zoonotic prospective
Chiranjib Chakraborty, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Manojit Bhattacharya, Garima Sharma, Sang-Soo Lee
June 2020, 13(6):242-246
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus (CoV), has recently emerged as a significant pathogen for humans and the cause for the recent outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) throughout the globe. For developing any preventive measure, an understanding of the zoonotic pattern for this virus is a necessity. We should have a clear knowledge of its reservoir host, its distribution pattern and spreading routes. Information about zoonotic reservoirs and its transmission among them can help to understand the COVID-19 outbreaks. In this article, we discuss about the bats as the zoonotic reservoir of several CoV strains, co-existence of bats and CoV/viruses, the sequence similarity of SARS-CoV-2 with bat SARS-like CoV, the probable source of the origin of SARS-CoV-2 strain and COVID-19 outbreak, intermediate host of CoVs and SARS-CoV-2, human to human transmission and the possibility to maintain the zoonotic barriers. Our knowledge about the zoonotic reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 and its transmission ability may help develop the preventive measures and control for the future outbreak of CoV.
  7,060 843 40
The COVID-19 pandemic in the ASEAN: A preliminary report on the spread, burden and medical capacities
Minh Van Hoang, Phuong Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Thao Thi Phuong Tran, Long Quynh Khuong, An Thi Minh Dao, Huy Van Nguyen, Riyanti Djalante, Hanh Thi Tuyet Tran
June 2020, 13(6):247-251
Objective: To provide preliminary descriptions of the spread, burden and related medical capacity characteristics of the ASEAN countries. Methods: We utilized the data from four main official databases, including WHO reports, the Statistics and Research of the Coronavirus Disease, and the Southeast Asia Program of the Center for Strategic and International Study. The spread of the COVID- 19 pandemic, current burden and the COVID-19 medical response capacities were extracted before April 11, 2020. Results: As of April 13, 2020, the ASEAN countries reported 19 547 COVID-19 positive cases with 817 deaths (case-facility rate of 4.2%). Thailand was the first country in the region that reported having the COVID-19 cases, while Laos was the last to report confirmed COVID-19 cases. Durations for the number of deaths to double were between 8-12 days. For the testing and treatment capacities, the number of PCR tests provided to the populations was the highest in Vietnam, followed by Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand. Meanwhile, the percentage of the population being tested was the highest in Brunei (2.31%), followed by Singapore (1.30%). Conclusions: A wide range of interventions were taken into practice in response to the outbreak with an effort of curbing the rise of this pandemic. However, special care should not be overlooked as the pandemic is placing a huge impact on the population and becomes increasingly unpredictable. To tackle the spread of the pandemic in the region, the ASEAN countries should work together as one community to provide better responses to future pandemics and other transboundary public health challenges.
  2,562 449 1
Immunized camels and COVID-19
Sidgi S Hasson, Ali A Al-Jabri
June 2020, 13(6):239-241
  2,444 271 -
Analysis of temporal trends of human brucellosis between 2013 and 2018 in Yazd Province, Iran to predict future trends in incidence: A time-series study using ARIMA model
Vahid Rahmanian, Saied Bokaie, Karamatollah Rahmanian, Saeed Hosseini, Aliakbar Taj Firouzeh
June 2020, 13(6):272-277
Objective: To determine the temporal patterns of cumulative incidence of brucellosis using autoregressive integrated moving average models. Methods: This cross-sectional study employed yearly and monthly data of 1 117 laboratory-confirmed human brucellosis cases from January 2013 to December 2018 using the Yazd brucellosis national surveillance system. The monthly incidences constructed a timeseries model. The trend of cumulative incidence was perceived by tracing a line plot, which displayed a seasonal trend with periodicity. Thus, the ARIMA models were selected. Thereafter, Akaike information criteria (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) values among different models indicated a preferable model from models which were expanded by diverse lags [(3, 0, 3), (2, 0, 3), (3, 0, 2), (4, 0, 3) and (3, 0, 4)]. Then, the achieved ARIMA model was applied to the forecasting cumulative incidence of monthly brucellosis incidences. All analyses were performed using Stata, version 11.2. Results: For the ARIMA (3, 0, 4) model, MAPE value was 56.20% with standard error 0.009-0.016, and white noise diagnostic check (Q=19.79, P=0.975) for the residuals of the selected model showed that the data were completely modelled. The monthly incidences that were fitted by the ARIMA (3, 0, 4) model, with AIC (25.7) and BIC (43.35) with a similar pattern of actual cases from 2013 to 2018 and forecasting incidences from January 2019 to December 2019 were, respectively, 0.50, 0.44, 0.45, 0.49, 0.55, 0.58, 0.56, 0.51, 0.46, 0.44, 0.45 and 0.49 per 100 000 people. Conclusions: In summary, the study showed that the ARIMA (3, 0, 4) model can be applied to forecast human brucellosis patterns in Yazd province, supplementing present surveillance systems, and may be better for health policy-makers and planners.
  1,513 260 1
Effect of ABCB1 3435C>T transporter gene polymorphism on plasma efavirenz concentration in HIV-1 infected Thai adults
Sahapat Barusrux, Napatrupron Koomdee, Rattanaporn Sukprasong, Weerawat Manosuthi, Monpat Chamnanphon, Apichaya Puangpetch, Chonlaphat Sukasem, Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Maria de Lourdes Pereira
June 2020, 13(6):266-271
Objective: To investigate the influence of ABCB1 polymorphisms on the plasma level of efavirenz in Thai adult cases infected with HIV-1. Methods: A single nucleotide polymorphism of ABCB1 3435C>T (rs1045642) in the gene encoding ABCB1 was genotyped using real-time PCR-based alleles in 149 HIV-infected Thai adults receiving efavirenz treatment. Plasma concentrations of efavirenz were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography 12 hr after administration. The relationship between plasma efavirenz concentrations and ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphisms was analyzed. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed no significant predictors of high plasma efavirenz concentration in relation to age, gender, body weight, CD4 count and plasma HIV-1 RNA, blood biochemical parameters, antiretroviral duration or ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphisms, except for height (OR=0.902, 95% CI: 0.835-0.973) (P<0.05). The minor allele frequency of ABCB1 3435C>T was 0.446. The frequency of the heterozygous mutant ABCB1 3435C/ T was 53.02% (n=79), ABCB1 3435T/T homozygous mutant was 18.12% (n=27) and the wild type ABCB1 3435C/C genotype was 28.86% (n=43). The overall median plasma concentration of efavirenz in 149 HIV-infected Thai cases was 2.41 mg/L [IQR: (1.46-4.12) mg/L]. The plasma concentration of efavirenz was higher in cases with ABCB1 3435T/T homozygous mutant [2.73 mg/L, IQR: (2.02-4.19) mg/L] and ABCB1 3435C/T heterozygous mutant [2.29 mg/L, IQR: (1.41-4.28) mg/L] genotypes compared to the wild type ABCB1 3435C/C homozygous [2.1 mg/L, IQR: (1.37-3.53) mg/L]. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the efavirenz concentration between the different genotypes (P>0.05). Conclusions: There is no statistical significance for a tendency toward higher plasma efavirenz concentration in the ABCB1 3435T/T and ABCB1 3435C/T genotypes. No parameters of physiological characteristics in this study except for height were found to be predictors of high plasma efavirenz concentration in Thai HIV-1 infected cases.
  1,181 193 -
Trichosporon asahii ankle cavity effusion infection in a patient with severe aplastic anemia
Peng Zhang, Zhenghai Yang, Jie Li, Xiaoning Li
June 2020, 13(6):278-280
Rationale: Trichosporon, an anamorphic fungus, proliferates under high humidity, causing serious opportunistic infections collectively called trichosporonosis. Among the Trichosporon species causing trichosporonosis are Trichosporon (T.) asahii, T. asteroides, T. cutaneum etc. Patient concerns: A 38-year-old Chinese male with severe aplastic anemia was admitted due to multiple joints pain, poor appetite, and right ankle swelling. One year earlier he had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Diagnosis: T. asahii infection and severe aplastic anemia. Interventions: Combined treatment of amphotericin B liposomes (55 mg/24 h) and voriconazole (200 mg/12 h) for 8 days. Outcomes: The symptoms of the patient’s ankle were relieved and effusion cultures showed no T. asahii. Lessons: To the best of our knowledge, T. asahii ankle cavity effusion infections are rare. Trichosporon infections may be attributed to risk factors such as improper long-term use of antimicrobials for an underlying disease (e.g., anemia, hypoalbuminemia). Attention should be paid to prevent and control Trichosporon infections in order to avoid comorbidities.
  1,157 151 1
Non-iranian travelers may threaten malaria elimination in Iran
Shahrzad Soltani, Masoud Foroutan, Aliasghar Valipour, Zolfaghar Sabati, Fatemeh Hallajian
June 2020, 13(6):281-282
  950 131 -
Structural biology oriented predicative analysis of immunogenic epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 viral sequence by variable algorithms
Dhanasekaran Sivaraman
June 2020, 13(6):283-284
  836 137 -