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   2019| December  | Volume 12 | Issue 14  
    Online since December 3, 2019

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Survival analysis of 198 patients with pancreatic cancer in Hainan, China: A multi-institution prospective study
Zao-Xi Sun, Yong-Mei Shen, Zheng-Ke Sun, Kai Li, CM Emmanuel, Yan Yang, Yong-Jiang Zhou, Hai-Rong Huang
December 2019, 12(14):25-31
Objective: To explore the survival status and prognostic factors of patients with pancreatic cancer in Hainan. Methods: Clinical data of patients who were diagnosed as pancreatic cancer and visited the First and Second Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University and Haikou People’s Hospital from 2013 to 2017 were collected based on electronic medical records. Basic information was collected by a self-designed questionnaire. Data about admission examinations including blood routine examination, blood biochemistry tests, tumour markers tests, imaging examination and other clinical tests were also collected. The date of follow-up via telephone was 30 June 2018. The survival rate was analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier method and the logrank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed with COX regression model. Results: A total of 198 patients were included in the study. Kaplan–Meier results showed that the overall survival (OS) in 6 months and 1, 2, 3 and 5 years was 47.4%, 26.8%, 16.4%, 13.2%, and 8.7%, respectively. The median OS was 5.8 months. Log-rank test analysis found that there were significant differences in OS among patients with different age, surgery status, distant metastasis or absolute number of neutrophils, percentage of neutrophils, absolute number of lymphocytes, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), CA199 and carcino-embryonic antigen (P<0.1). COX multivariate analysis showed that age, surgical presence, presence or absence of distant metastasis and NLR were significantly associated OS (P<0.05). Conclusions: Older age, higher NLR and liver or lung metastasis are independent risk factors, while surgical treatment is an independent protective factor for patients with pancreatic cancer.
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An updated Chinese consensus statement on stroke-associated pneumonia 2019
Yong-Jun Wang, Yu-Guo Chen, Chuan-Zhu Lv, Xing-Quan Zhao, Wei Guo
December 2019, 12(14):1-11
  2,248 372 1
Practice of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in China after publication of the 2015 AHA guidelines for resuscitation: A multiinstitution survey
Lan-Fang Du, Hong-Xia Ge, Qing-Bian Ma, Bao-Lan Ge, Jian-Zhong Yang, Yu-Hong Mi, Yi-Xiong Zhang
December 2019, 12(14):12-16
Objective: To investigate the current practice of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) for Chinese cardiac arrest patients after the publication of 2015 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to healthcare providers of emergency departments (EDs) and/or Intensive Care Units (ICUs) across 52 hospitals in China from August to November 2016. Data collection ended in February 2017. The questionnaire included three parts: (1) characteristics of the departments and the respondents; (2) knowledge about ECPR; (3) practice of ECPR in cardiac arrest patients (case volume, inclusion/exclusion criteria, ECPR procedure). The characteristics of the departments/hospitals were only answered by the head of the department. Results: A total of 1 952 (86.8%) respondents fulfilled the survey. Only 2.5% of the respondents from 3 of 52 hospitals performed ECPR. Among the three hospitals, the case number of ECPR were ≤5 per year and none of them had written ECPR procedures. Only one hospital had formal inclusion/exclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria included age between 18 to 60 years, suspected cardiogenic cardiac arrest, beginning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation <5 min after cardiac arrest and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation >10 min. The top three reasons for the nonuse of ECPR were unknown fields (31.2%), potential ECMO-related side effects (26.9%) and cost (18.7%). Conclusions: ECPR for cardiac arrest patients are not well understood by healthcare providers in the emergency department or ICUs and its application is still in the early stage in China. Educational training and other interventions are needed to promote the clinical practice.
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Memantine inhibits 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis PC12 cells via the Nurr77 and caspase pathway
Wei Wu, Rui Wang, Yong-Mei Fu, Jie Zhou, Hai-Chao Huang, Wei-Wang Gu
December 2019, 12(14):59-68
Objective: To investigate the effect of memantine on Parkinson’s disease cell models. Methods: Parkinson’s disease cell models were established using PC12 cells incubated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Flow cytometry and microscopy were used to investigate the apoptotic process and the percentage of different apoptotic stages. PC12 cells were infected with lentiviral vectors to knockdown Nur77. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of Nur77 and caspase -3, -8, -9, -12 in PC12 cells withdifferent concentrations of 6-OHDA or 6-OHDA+memantine. Results: 6-OHDA led to apoptosis PC12 cells, and increased the expression of Nur77 and caspases. Memantine significantly inhibited 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells. Meanwhile, memantine could mitigate apoptosis of PC12 cells by regulating the Nur77 and caspase pathway. Conclusions: Memantine has a protective effect on the PC12 cell model via regulating the Nur77 and caspases pathway.
  1,968 173 -
Recombinant human calcineurin B inhibits orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma xenograt growth in mice by promoting apoptosis
Xiao-Dian Zhang, Zhi-Hui He, Li-Ping Zheng, Guo-Hui Yi, Min-Ge Lin, Li-Zhen Fu, Shu-Hong Tian, Hong-Hai Li, Yan-Da Lu, Shen-Hong Gu, Shao-Jiang Zheng
December 2019, 12(14):32-40
Objective: To explore the effects of recombinant human calcineurin B (rhCNB) on hepatocellular carcinoma in mice. Methods: An in vivo mouse model with hepatocellular carcinoma was established, and the mice were randomized into the rhCNB, positive control and vehicle treatments groups. Tumor growth was assessed via bioluminescence using a small animal imaging system. Relative tumor proliferation rate and tumor growth inhibition were calculated. The expression of p53 and caspase-9 proteins in tumors were detected by immunohistochemistry. In vitro, flow cytometry was used to quantify the cell-cycle stages and rate of apoptosis. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR assays were used to evaluate the effects of rhCNB on protein and gene expression of CDK1, cyclin B1, p53 and caspase-9. Results: rhCNB at the higher dose significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo and caused tumor cell apoptosis in vitro. The rhCNB at the higher dose was as effective as cisplatin, and was safer. Conclusions: rhCNB has potent pro-apoptotic effects on tumor cells in vivo and in vitro and is well tolerated in vivo.
  1,726 193 -
Combined anatomic and physiologic scoring systems for predicting in-hospital mortality in ICU patients with severe trauma: A multicenter observational cohort study
Xiao-Yuan Ma, Huai-Jian Jin, Li-Xing Tian, Qian Wang, Jun-Yu Zhu, Zhi-Gao He, Wen Tao, Tao Chen, Bin Wang, Hua-Ping Liang
December 2019, 12(14):17-24
Objective: To evaluate the ability of new injury severity score (NISS), acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), Glasgow coma scale (GCS), a combination of NISS and GCS, a combination of APACHE II and GCS, a combination of NISS and APACHE II to predict all-cause mortality of patients with severe trauma in mainland China. Methods: This was a multicenter observational cohort study conducted in the ICU of the Chonggang General Hospital, Daping Hospital of the Army Medical University and Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College from January 2012 to August 2016. The score of NISS, APACHE II, GCS, a combination of NISS and GCS, a combination of APACHE II and GCS, a combination of NISS and APACHE II were calculated based on data from the first 24 hours of ICU admission. Data were processed with Student’s t-test, chi-square test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of six scoring systems. Calibration was assessed with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The primary endpoint was death from any cause during ICU stay. Results: A total of 852 and 238 patients with severe trauma were assigned to the derivation group and validation group, respectively. Area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.826 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.794-0.855)] for NISS, 0.802 (95% CI=0.768-0.832) for APACHE II, 0.808 (95% CI=0.774-0.838) for NGCS, 0.859 (95% CI=0.829 -0.886) for NISS+NGCS, 0.864 (95% CI=0.835-0.890) for APACHE II +NGCS, 0.896 (95% CI=0.869-0.929) for NISS+APACHE II in the derivation cohort. Similarly, the score of NISS+APACHE II was also better than the other five scores in the validation cohort (AUC=0.782; 95% CI=0.725-0.833) and had a good calibration (P=0.41). Conclusions: Taking into account anatomical and physiological parameters completely, the combination of NISS and APACHE II performs better than NISS, APACHE II , NGCS, NISS+NGCS, APACHE II +NGCS for predicting mortality in ICU severe trauma patients. It is needful to develop models that contain various types of accessible predictors (demographic variables, injury cause/mechanism, physiological and anatomical variables, etc.) as comprehensive as possible.
  1,698 163 -
Feng-liao-chang-wei-kang is synergistic with 5-fluorouracil in inhibiting proliferation of colorectal cancer
Pan-Li Ni, Shu-Hong Tian, Zhao-Xin Yang, Jun-Qing Zhang, Fan Yang, Li-Fan Zhong, Lian-Fang Gan, Mian-Qing Huang, Ling Huang
December 2019, 12(14):41-53
Objective: To explore the effect of Feng-liao-chang-wei-kang (FLCWK) on acute and chronic gastroenteritis, synergistic effect on the growth inhibitory effect with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on colorectal cancer and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: In the in vitro study, HT-29 cells were divided into 5-FU alone, FLCWK alone and coadministration groups. The MTT assay was used to analyze the proliferation of HT-29 cells at 24 h. Flow cytometry was used to observe the apoptosis, cycle of colorectal cancer HT-29 cells at 24 h. In the in vivo experiment, The subcutaneous transplantation tumor model of colorectal cancer HT-29-Luc was established with nude mice. All mice were randomly divided into 5-FU alone, FLCWK alone and coadministration groups according to body weight. During administration, the Interactive Video Information System small animal live imaging system was used to monitor the growth of subcutaneous transplantation in nude mice. The model of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CACC) was established with BALB/c mice. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into the normal control group, the model control group, and the FLCWK group. At the end of the administration, the pathological status was detected by HE staining. Cell apoptosis of tumor tissue tumor and colon tissues were observed by TUNEL staining and TUNEL green fluorescence. The protein expression of Caspase 3, p-STAT3, Bcl-2, Bax and P-gp in tumor tissues tumor and colon tissues were tested by using immunohistochemical assay. Results: FLCWK and 5-FU coadministration suppressed HT-29 cell viability and induced S phase arrest and apoptosis compared to treatment with 5-FU alone. Furthermore, compared to treatment with 5-FU alone, coadministration of FLCWK and 5-FU obviously reduced tumor volume and weight and induced apoptosis through decreasing p-STAT3 and P-gp and increasing Caspase 3 protein expression in a murine xenograft tumor model. Moreover, the result revealed decreased number and size of tumors following FLCWK protective administration, downregulated p-STAT3 and Bcl-2 levels and upregulated Bax and Caspase 3 expression in mice with CACC. Conclusions: FLCWK has synergistic effects with 5-FU on colorectal cancer by suppressing the STAT3 pathway and downregulating P-gp expression. Furthermore, FLCWK administration suppresses CACC tumorigenesis by inhibiting the STAT3 pathway.
  1,641 150 1
Anti-tumor activity of a recombinant endoglin-MIP3α Fc-fusion protein in mice with hepatocellular carcinoma
Zhi-Hui He, Si-Ru Liu, Xin-Lai Wu, Yong-Hao Huang, Yan Chen, Yi Deng, Pan-Pan Xie, Yan-Da Lu
December 2019, 12(14):54-58
Objective: To investigate the effects of a recombinant endoglin-macrophage inflammatory protein 3α Fc-fusion protein (EM) vaccine on tumor angiogenesis and growth in mice with H22 hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: An in vivo hepatoma mouse model was established. Seven days after subcutaneous inoculation of H22 tumor cells, mice were randomly divided into four groups: EM, endoglin Fc-fusion protein, macrophage inflammatory protein 3α Fc-fusion protein, and normal saline groups. Tumor volume and survival rate of mice were studied at 3-day intervals. Microvessel density of the tumors and tumor cell proliferation were detected by immunohistochemistry, and tumor cell apoptosis was detected by TdT-mediated biotinylated-dUTP nick-end label staining. The number of CD11c and CD86 positive dendritic cells were detected by flow cytometry. Results: Compared with the other groups, the tumor volume became smaller, and the survival time was longer in the EM-treated group. Besides, microvessel density and cell proliferation index were significantly lower, while the tumor cell apoptosis index was significantly higher in the EM-treated group. Besides the number of CD11c and CD86 positive dendritic cells in EM- treated mice was larger than that in other groups. Conclusions: EM Fc-fusion protein could effectively inhibit tumor growth through inhibiting endoglin-related tumor angiogenesis and cell proliferation, promoting tumor cell apoptosis, and could induce a certain degree of antitumor immune responses.
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