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   2018| May  | Volume 11 | Issue 5  
    Online since May 28, 2018

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Antimicrobial activity of kojic acid from endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from Sonneratia apetala, a mangrove plant of the Sundarbans
Tauhidur Rahman Nurunnabi, Shaymaa Al-Majmaie, Ismini Nakouti, Lutfun Nahar, S. M. Mahbubur Rahman, Md. Hossain Sohrab, Md. Morsaline Billah, Fyaz M. D. Ismail, George P Sharples, Satyajit D Sarker
May 2018, 11(5):350-354
Objective: To isolate and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the active principle(s) from the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C. gloeosporioides) isolated from Sonneratia apetala. Methods: Water agar technique was used to isolate the fungus, and both microscopic and molecular techniques were used for identification of the strain. Potato dextrose broth was used to grow the fungus in large-scale. Reversed-phase preparative HPLC analysis was performed to isolate the major active compound, kojic acid. The EtOAc extract and kojic acid were screened for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria as well as a fungal strain using the resazurin 96-well microtitre plate antimicrobial assay. Results: The fungus C. gloeosporioides was isolated from the leaves of Sonneratia apetala. Initial identification of the fugal isolate was carried out using spore characteristics observed under the microscope. Subsequently, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequencing was employed for species-level identification of the fungus C. gloeosporioides. Five litres of liquid culture of the fungus produced approximately 610 mg of a mixture of secondary metabolites. Kojic acid (1) was isolated as the main secondary metabolite present in the fungal extract, and the structure was confirmed by 1D, 2D NMR and mass spectrometry. The EtOAc extract and compound 1 exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. Whilst the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values from the EtOAc extract ranged between 2.4× 10-4 mg/mL and 2.5 mg/mL, those of kojic acid (1) were between 0.125 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL. The EtOAc extract and kojic acid (1) were most active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 2.4×10-4 mg/mL) and Micrococcus luteus (MIC = 0.125 mg/mL), respectively. Conclusions: The results revealed that the endophytic fungus C. gloeosporioides could be a good source of commercially important kojic acid, which exhibited antimicrobial properties.
  6,594 717 11
Melioidosis in India and Bangladesh: A review of case reports
Meghan Tipre, Paul Vijay Kingsley, Tamika Smith, Mark Leader, Nalini Sathiakumar
May 2018, 11(5):320-329
Objective: To conduct an epidemiological and clinical review of published case reports of melioidosis from India and Bangladesh. Methods: Data from published case reports were abstracted and summarized. We further compared the clinical epidemiology of the melioidosis cases in India with case series from highly endemic areas in Northern Australia and Southeast Asia to elucidate any differences in presentations and risk factors between the regions. Results: We identified a total of 99 cases published between 1953 and June 2016, originating from India (n=85) or Bangladesh (n=14). Cases were predominantly male and ranged in age from 1 month to 90 years. Diabetes mellitus was the most common risk factor reported (58%). About 28% of the cases had history of exposure via high-risk occupations or exposure to contaminated water. The overall case fatality rate (CFR) was 26%. Factors influencing mortality included the occurrence of septic shock (CFR, 80%), environmental exposure (CFR, 39%), primary presentation of pneumonia (CFR, 38%), misdiagnosed and/or mistreated cases (CFR, 33%) or the presence of a risk factor (CFR, 29%). Because of the small number of cases in Bangladesh, pattern of clinical epidemiology is limited to India. Soft tissue abscess (37%) was the most common clinical presentation reported from India followed by pneumonia (24%) and osteomyelitis/septic arthritis (18%). Neurological melioidosis (n=10, 12%) presented as pyemic lesions of the brain or meninges. A few cases of prostatic abscess (n=4) in men and parotid abscess (n=4) were also noted. The above patterns were consistent with case series from Southeast Asia and Northern Australia for the most part, in terms of risk factors associated with infection and factors influencing mortality. Differences included clinical presentation of pneumonia which was notably lower than that reported in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia; a higher proportion of neurological and parotid abscess presentation; and a lower CFR compared to that reported in case series in Southeast Asia. About 39% of the cases were misdiagnosed and/or mistreated, suggesting underreporting and under estimation of the true disease burden. Conclusions: The concentration of melioidosis cases in southern and eastern states in India and in Bangladesh, which share climatic conditions and rice farming activities with known endemic areas in Southeast Asia, suggests an endemicity of melioidosis in this region. Thus, increased awareness among healthcare personnel, particularly among clinicians and nurses practicing in rural areas, and improved surveillance through case registries is essential to guide early diagnosis and prompt treatment.
  5,458 566 7
Zoonotic leishmaniasis and control in Ethiopia
Wossenseged Lemma
May 2018, 11(5):313-319
Visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis are important public health problems in Ethiopian lowland and highland areas respectively. Failure of antimonial drugs to respond in some diffused cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV/AIDS-leishmaniasis co-infected patients, side effects of these drugs, highly mutilating diagnostic procedures and high health care expense are among the problems associated with leishmaniasis. Control of leishmaniasis requires proper understanding of human parasites transmissions (anthroponotic or zoonotic or both). The aim of this review was to elaborate different ecologies of leishmaniasis based on evidences from previous researches and information from literatures obtained from different sources including PubMed to describe zoonotic leishmaniasis in Ethiopia with possible control methods. Although vectors of leishmaniasis in Ethiopia are not endophelic, night indoor visits of Phlebotomus vectors for possible blood meal on human have been indicated. Thus, application of indoor and domestic residual insecticides spraying, use of insecticide impregnated fine mashed bed net for visceral leishmaniasis, community based manipulation (destruction) and residual insecticide fogging of hyrax-sand fly habitats for cutaneous leishmaniasis are the visible vector and reservoir control methods that can be used for control of these diseases in Ethiopia. Use of repellants during night outdoor activities of people in the endemic areas requires further investigations.
  5,165 593 9
Synergistic renoprotective effect of a compiled branched-chain amino acids and Cymbopogon schoenanthus extract against experimentally induced oxido-nitrosative renal insult
Omar Abdel-Hamed Ahmed-Farid, Bosy Azmy Abd El-Motelp, Enaam Abdel-Mohsen Essa, Mohamad Warda
May 2018, 11(5):342-349
Objective: To better investigate the protective role of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and Cymbopogon schoenanthus (CS) extract against the potassium dichromate (PDC)-induced oxido-nitrosative nephrotoxic insult in the experimental rat model. Methods: Thirty male rats were randomly divided into five equal groups: The 1st group served as control; the 2nd was injected with a single dose of PDC (15 mg/kg b.w i.p.); the 3rd, 4th, and 5th groups were respectively treated with BCAAs, CS, and their combination for 15 d prior to induction of renal insult via PDC single dose (15 mg/kg b.w s.c.). The experimental period was terminated in all groups 2 d after induction of renal insult. The harvested kdney samples were divided for biochemical assays and histological examination. Results: The PDC-induced nephrotoxic effect caused a depletion of renal oxidative scavengers glutathione, superoxide dismutase with consequent lipo-oxidative cellular membrane deterioration manifested by a rise in malonaldehyde, oxidized glutathione, myeloperoxidase and the concomitant increase in inflammatory response elements tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, and interleukin 1 β. Moreover, the comet assay and increased 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine proved an accelerated apoptotic DNA fragmentation. These local renal changes were met with global altered blood biochemistry. The BCAAs and CS or their compiled administration showed an ameliorative effect against PDC-induced nephrotoxic in a synergistic pattern. Conclusions: Both BCAAs and CS or their combined administration afford potential competitors against renal insult induced by polyvalent anion pollutants in experimentally studied animals model. As a route for novel drug discovery, further investigation should be attempted to optimize their augmenting reno-protecting potential.
  3,775 344 1
Anti-cancer effect of ethylacetate fraction from Orostachys japonicus on HT-29 human colon cancer cells by induction of apoptosis through caspase-dependent signaling pathway
Deok-Seon Ryu, Hyun-Ji Lee, Ji-Hye Kwon, Dong-Seok Lee
May 2018, 11(5):330-335
Objective: To investigate the anti-colon cancer effects of ethylacetate fraction from Orostachys japonicus (O. japonicus) on HT-29 cancer cells. Methods: The viability of HT-29 cells was assayed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) method. Apoptosis induction and cell cycle inhibition were confirmed by fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining using flow cytometry. Morphological changes in the nucleus were observed, using a fluorescence microscope with 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) nuclear staining. The expression levels of the upstream and downstream proteins involved in the anti-cancer mechanism were confirmed by Western blotting. Results: After treating HT-29 cells with different concentrations of ethylacetate fraction from O. japonicus, the viability of cells decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, while apoptosis induction and apoptotic body formation increased. Cell cycle analysis showed that the arrest occurred at the sub-G1 and S phase. Among the upstream and downstream proteins involved in anti-cancer activity, the level of B cell lymphoma-2 decreased, and the bcl-2-associated x protein increased. The level of pro-caspase-3, pro-caspase-8, and pro-caspase-9 decreased, while the level of cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-8, and cleaved-caspase-9 increased. Moreover, the phosphorylation, that is, activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2, Jun-N-terminal kinase, and p38 increased. Conclusions: Combining the above results, it is thought that the survival of HT-29 cells is suppressed by ethylacetate fraction from O. japonicus through mitochondrial regulation-induced caspase cascade activation, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
  3,444 612 7
Adjuvant activity of Pasteurella multocida A strain, Pasteurella multocida B strain and Salmonella typhimurium bacterial DNA on cellular and humoral immunity responses against Pasteurella multocida specific strain infections in Balb/c mice
Maryam Homayoon, Yahya Tahamtan, Mohammad Kargar, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Hosseini, Abbas Akhavan Sepahy
May 2018, 11(5):336-341
Objective: To evaluate the effects of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) vaccines on the expression and release of antibodies, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-12 by serum. Methods: Balb/c mice were immunized with two formalin and iron inactivated vaccine doses within 2 weeks. The vaccines were adjuvant with P. multocida A strain, P. multocida B strain and Salmonella typhimurium bacterial DNA (AbDNA, BbDNA and SbDNA for short, respectively). The animals were challenged 4 weeks after immunization. Blood of mice was collected to detect the change of specific antibody, IL-6, and IL-12 using ELISA. Results: The specific antibody and interleukins in the immunized group increased significantly compared to the control mice after vaccination and challenge (P<0.05). The highest release of these cytokines was obtained by P. multocida inactivated with iron and adjuvant with AbDNA at a concentration of 25 μg/mL. The antibody titer peak was 0.447 in mice vaccinated with iron-killed whole-cell antigen adjunct with AbDNA. The time-courses of release showed that bacterial DNA was able to stimulate IL-6 and IL-12 production more than alum (P<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings introduce that bacterial DNA is capable of releasing an immunological response with several cytokines. These indicate that bacterial DNA entrapped with killed P. multocida antigen is a new and effective adjuvant to enhance specific immunity and resistance of animal against the infectious pathogen, which could simplify the development of highly promising strong adjuvant.
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