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   Table of Contents - Current issue
May 2023
Volume 16 | Issue 5
Page Nos. 193-240

Online since Wednesday, May 31, 2023

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Faunal richness and checklist of sandflies (Diptera: Pyschodidae) in India p. 193
Harish Kumar Shah, PA Fathima, N Pradeep Kumar, Ashwani Kumar, Prasanta Saini
This review aims to fill the voids and to update the checklist of sandfly fauna along with its spatial distribution in India. Resource databases i.e. either online or offline were searched to deduce the information to systematize the Indian sandfly fauna. Articles/data retrieved were screened and analysed to further update the available latest checklist. The species name and authorship were given in accord with the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature. We compiled an updated checklist of reported Indian sandfly species along with their state-wise distribution till 2022 as per published literature. Kerala has maximum number of species reports when compared to other endemic states and states with pockets of transmission. Phlebotomus argentipes is the most widely distributed, recorded so far, followed by other Sergentomiya and Phlebotomus species in India. In this review, we have also described the vector and non-vector species of sandfly prevalent in different parts of the country. Phlebotoiella eoindianensis, an amber fossil sandfly species recorded from Gujarat might be older than other records of Indian sandfly fauna. So far 69 species (4 genera and 15 subgenera/groups) of Phlebotomine sandflies have been recorded in India. Proper knowledge of species diversity and its distribution is a prerequisite for planning a systematic vector control strategy and disease management.
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Association between serum albumin levels and disease severity in adult patients with dengue: A 7-year retrospective cohort study in mainland China p. 204
Changtai Wang, Huiqin Yang, Jielan Xu, Jian Wang, Lingzhai Zhao, Wenxin Hong, Fuchun Zhang
Objective: To identify the association between serum albumin levels and disease severity among adult patients with dengue in mainland China. Methods: This retrospective cohort study analyzed the data of adult patients (aged ≥ 18 years) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed dengue in a tertiary center for infectious diseases from 2013 to 2019 in mainland China. Serum albumin levels were estimated and compared between patients with severe dengue and non-severe dengue. Additionally, the association between serum albumin levels and severe dengue was evaluated using a generalized linear model [relative risks (RR)]. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the potential predictors of severe dengue. Results: Overall, 1568 patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 34 (2.17%) developed severe dengue. The median serum albumin levels were significantly lower in patients with severe dengue than that in those with non-severe dengue (33 g/L vs. 37 g/L, P<0.001). After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities, hypoalbuminemia (RR 4.877, 95% CI 2.193-11.461, P<0.001) was found to be a predictor of severe dengue. Serum albumin levels (OR 1.303, 95% CI 1.161-1.462, P<0.001)] and age (OR 1.038, 95% CI 1.017-1.061, P<0.001) were significant risk factors for severe dengue. The area under the curve for serum albumin levels to distinguish severe dengue was 0.787. Conclusions: Lower serum albumin levels were significantly associated with disease severity in adult patients with dengue. Hypoalbuminemia on admission resulted in at least a four-fold increased risk of severe dengue.
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Hepatitis B vaccination status and associated factors among health science students p. 213
Binh Thanh Nguyen, Lan Y Vo, Tap Van Nguyen, Minh Cong Vo, Tinh Dang Pham, Han Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Lynda Boyer-Chu, Giao Huynh
Objective: To evaluate hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine coverage and its associated factors among health science students in Vietnam. Methods: This cross-sectional study involving 459 health science students at Tra Vinh University was conducted between April and June 2022. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire with items on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and attitude about HBV, and vaccination status. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to explore the factors associated with vaccination status. Results: The majority of participants were female (65.8%) and enrolled at the medical school (56.2%). A total of 30.3% participants received the full dose of the HBV vaccine. The percentages of participants with sufficient knowledge and positive attitudes toward HBV infection were 75.2% and 43.4%, respectively. Vaccination was 11.8 times higher in sixth-year medical students than any healthcare student in their first-year [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 11.8, 95% CI 3.1-45.1, P<0.001], and the coverage was also significant higher in those who had sufficient knowledge (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.9, P<0.05) and positive attitudes (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.9-4.8, P<0.05) than in their counterparts. Conclusions: The majority of students were not fully vaccinated against HBV, indicating they were vulnerable to the disease. Administrators and authorities should reinforce health education messages aimed at encouraging all students to get vaccinated with the HBV vaccine, enhance their awareness and knowledge of HBV, and improve attitudes toward HBV infection prevention.
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Antibiotic resistance and molecular typing of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Malaysian military hospital p. 220
Nor Syaza Syahirah Amat Junaidi, Nik Noorul Shakira Mohamed Shakrin, Mohammad Fahmi Daman Huri, Ahmad Zakwan Kamarudin, Mohd Nasir Mohd Desa, Wan Mohd Zin Wan Yunus
Objective: To determine the antibiotic resistance profile (ARP) of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus isolates and molecular typing of the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates from Tuanku Mizan Armed Forces Hospital (TMAFH), Kuala Lumpur. Methods: The ARP and presence of the pvl gene were determined for 209 S. aureus isolates from clinical specimens. Of these, 123 were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates and 86 were MRSA isolates. All MRSA isolates were characterized using SCCmec typing and spa typing. Descriptive analysis was performed to compare the demographic data with the phenotypic and genotypic variables of the S. aureus isolates. Results: No vancomycin-intermediate and -resistant S. aureus (VISA and VRSA, respectively) were detected among the study isolates. The MSSA isolates showed low resistance rates to all tested antibiotics, were commonly invasive (28/42, 66.7%), and mostly harboured pvl (35/42, 83.3%). Meanwhile, MRSA isolates showed high resistance to penicillin (86/86, 100%), ampicillin (86/86, 100%), sulbactam/ampicillin (86/86, 100%), cefuroxime (81/86, 94.19%), cefoperazone (76/86, 88.37%), azithromycin (56/86, 65.12%), and erythromycin (54/86, 62.79%). The majority of MRSA isolates were of SCCmec type IVh (65/86, 75.58%), spa type t032 (55/85, 63.95%), and grouped into spaCC-t022 (66/85, 77.65%). The t032 type was found to be associated with resistance traits to azithromycin and erythromycin (P<0.05). We also found several spa types that are typically associated with hospital-, community-, and livestock-associated MRSA co-existing in our MRSA population. Conclusions: This study reflected the consistent absence of VISA and VRSA and corroborated the clonal shifting of MRSA isolates in the Malaysian MRSA isolates.
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Autoimmune complications and clinical outcomes of herpes simplex encephalitis in children: A case series p. 232
Gül Demet Kaya Ozcora, Elif Söbü, Türkan Uygur Şahin, Enes Salı, Gonca Bektaş
Objective: To report the neurologic prognosis and autoimmune complications of 16 cases of childhood herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Methods: The study was conducted at Şanlıurfa Training and Research Hospital, Turkey from June 2017 to August 2019. The study included 16 pediatric patients aged between 6 months and 17 years (median age 77.7 months) who were diagnosed with herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis by pediatric infectious disease and pediatric neurology clinics. Patients were followed using patient records, and interviews at the pediatric neurology clinic or via the telephone. Clinical and demographic data, received therapies, neurologic prognosis and complications were evaluated. Results: Patients with and without autoimmune encephalitis were compared in terms of age, sex, symptom duration before treatment, initial cerebrospinal fluid protein, glucose, red blood count and white blood count but no significant difference was found. Autoimmune complications were seen in four patients. N-methyl-D-aspartate encephalitis was observed in three patients and choreoathetosis was seen in one patient. The average follow-up period was 48.3 months. Twenty-five percent of the patients were receiving multiple antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment, 43.8% were receiving single AED treatment and 31.3% were not receiving AED treatment at the end of the follow-up. Motor disability was observed in 12.5% and drug-resistant epilepsy was observed in 6.3% who had autoimmune complications. Conclusions: Seizures and movement disorders were controlled with immunotherapy and autoantibodies should be studied routinely. Treatment should be started early upon recognition of autoimmune complications through follow-up by measuring autoantibody levels and clinical examination results. Effective prevention and curative treatment modalities are needed to avoid herpes simplex virus encephalitis complications.
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Electrocardiographic changes in dengue fever p. 239
Rupak Chatterjee, Dolonchampa Modak, Kumkum Sarkar, Shambo Samrat Samajdar, Netai Pramanik, Shatavisa Mukherjee, Bibhuti Saha
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