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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 400-409

The predictors of long–COVID in the cohort of Turkish Thoracic Society– TURCOVID multicenter registry: One year follow–up results


1 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey
2 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey
3 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University; University of Health Sciences, Adana City Training and Research Hospital, Adana, Turkey
4 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey
5 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
6 Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey
7 Koc University Research Center for Translational Medicine (KUTTAM), Koc University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey
8 Department of Immunology, Koc University Research Center for Translational Medicine (KUTTAM), Koc University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey
9 Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey
10 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey
11 Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
12 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey
13 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Bilecik Training and Research Hospital, Bilecik, Turkey
14 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Altunizade Acibadem Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
15 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey
16 Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey
17 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey
18 Department of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey
19 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey
20 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Duzce University, Duzce, Turkey
21 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey
22 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Koc University Research Center for Translational Medicine (KUTTAM), Koc University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Nurdan Kokturk
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey
Turkey
Serap Argun Baris
Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli, Turkey
Turkey
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.354422

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Objective: To evaluate long-term effects of COVID-19, and to determine the risk factors in long-COVID in a cohort of the Turkish Thoracic Society (TTS)-TURCOVID multicenter registry. Methods: Thirteen centers participated with 831 patients; 504 patients were enrolled after exclusions. The study was designed in three-steps: (1) Phone questionnaire; (2) retrospective evaluation of the medical records; (3) face-to-face visit. Results: In the first step, 93.5% of the patients were hospitalized; 61.7% had a history of pneumonia at the time of diagnosis. A total of 27.1% reported clinical symptoms at the end of the first year. Dyspnea (17.00%), fatigue (6.30%), and weakness (5.00%) were the most prevalent long-term symptoms. The incidence of long-term symptoms was increased by 2.91 fold (95% CI 1.04-8.13, P=0.041) in the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and by 1.84 fold (95% CI 1.10-3.10, P=0.021) in the presence of pneumonia at initial diagnosis, 3.92 fold (95% Cl 2.29-6.72, P=0.001) of dyspnea and 1.69 fold (95% Cl 1.02-2.80, P=0.040) fatigue persists in the early-post-treatment period and 2.88 fold (95% Cl 1.52- 5.46, P=0.001) in the presence of emergency service admission in the post COVID period. In step 2, retrospective analysis of 231 patients revealed that 1.4% of the chest X-rays had not significantly improved at the end of the first year, while computed tomography (CT) scan detected fibrosis in 3.4%. In step 3, 138 (27.4%) patients admitted to face-to-face visit at the end of first year; at least one symptom persisted in 49.27% patients. The most common symptoms were dyspnea (27.60%), psychiatric symptoms (18.10%), and fatigue (17.40%). Thorax CT revealed fibrosis in 2.4% patients. Conclusions: COVID-19 symptoms can last for extended lengths of time, and severity of the disease as well as the presence of comorbidities might contribute to increased risk. Long-term clinical issues should be regularly evaluated after COVID-19.


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