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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 220-229

Ficus carica hairy roots: In vitro anti-leishmanial activity against Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes


1 Department of Horticulture Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
2 Cellular and Molecular Research Center; Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
3 Department of Horticulture Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
4 Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
5 Centre for Climate and Environmental Protection, School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK

Correspondence Address:
Shahram Khademvatan
Cellular and Molecular Research Center; Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia
Iran
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Source of Support: The authors received no extramural funding for the study, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.345945

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Objective: To investigate the biochemical capacity, and in vitro inhibitory effects of hairy roots from two cultivars of Ficus carica L. (Sabz and Siah) on Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes. Methods: In the hairy roots, the activity of antioxidant enzymes compared to normal leaves and roots, and the presence of some phenolic compounds in comparison with fruits were investigated. The IC50 values of hairy roots in promastigotes was determined by tetrazolium-dye 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and trypan blue assays. By calculating the infectivity index of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the leishmanicidal activity (IC50 values) of hairy roots for amastigotes was estimated. The effects of hairy roots (IC50 values) treatment on the levels of IFN-γ and iNOS expression, intracellular reactive oxygen species, and iNOS protein expression in infected-PBMCs were determined. Results: Based on antioxidant enzyme assays and high performance liquid chromatography analysis, hairy roots exhibited high antioxidant capacity and contained high levels of phenolic compounds. According to the results of tetrazolium-dye 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and trypan blue assays, the hairy root extracts of both cultivars showed considerable dose-dependent inhibitory effects against Leishmania major promastigotes. Depending on the concentration and exposure time, treatment of infected-PBMCs with hairy root extracts caused the generation of a significant reactive oxygen species, up- regulation of IFN-γ and iNOS genes expression, and high value of iNOS protein compared to controls. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the hairy roots of Ficus carica can be considered as a promising natural source of antileishmanial agents.


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