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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 143-152

Tuberculous meningitis and miliary tuberculosis in Iran: A review


1 Infectious Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran
2 Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3 Clinic for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, 11000, Belgrade, Serbia

Correspondence Address:
Azadeh Ebrahimzadeh
Infectious Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand
Iran
Ehsan Ahmadpour
Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz
Iran
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Source of Support: The authors received no extramural funding for the study, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.343880

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In recent years, the number of cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Iran has increased. The goal of this study was to determine the epidemiological status, clinical symptoms, diagnostic methods, and treatment strategies of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Iran, with a focus on tuberculosis meningitis and miliary tuberculosis. Between January 1, 2000 and June 1, 2021, 1 651 cases of tuberculosis meningitis and miliary tuberculosis were discovered in Iran. The prevalence of tuberculosis meningitis was higher in Sistan and Baluchestan, South Khorasan, and Mazandaran compared with other provinces. The most prevalent symptoms of tuberculous meningitis were fever, anorexia, headache, neck stiffness, loss of consciousness, and vomiting. The most commonly used procedures for diagnosing tuberculous meningitis were polymerase chain reaction and cerebrospinal fluid culture. The most prevalent clinical symptoms of miliary tuberculosis were fever, lethargy, weariness, and anorexia. In 70% of chest radiographs, a miliary pattern was visible. Bone marrow biopsy was used to diagnose miliary tuberculosis in 80% of patients, while bronchoalveolar lavage was used in 20% of cases. The conventional 6-month treatment approach for tuberculous meningitis and miliary tuberculosis was used for all of the participants in the investigations. Given the high prevalence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis patients in Iran and the devastating consequences of the disease, the researchers recommend that further study be done to prevent extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the general population.


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