Impact Factor 2020: 1.226 (@Clarivate Analytics)
5-Year Impact Factor: 2.285 (@Clarivate Analytics)
Immediacy Index: 2.645
  • Users Online: 1642
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

 
Table of Contents
META-ANALYSIS
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 17-25

Antibiotic resistance pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound isolates among Chinese burn patients: A systematic review and meta analysis


Clinical Laboratory, Emergency General Hospital, No.29 Xibahe South Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100028, China

Date of Submission20-Oct-2021
Date of Decision09-Jan-2022
Date of Acceptance13-Jan-2022
Date of Web Publication20-Jan-2022

Correspondence Address:
Hui Xu
Clinical Laboratory, Emergency General Hospital, No.29 Xibahe South Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100028
China
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.335703

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Objective: To investigate the resistance profiles to antimicrobial agents of wound-isolated Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa among Chinese burn patients.
Methods: Electronic databases and manual search were used to identify eligible studies published since 2010. The objectives were pooled resistance rates for eleven common antimicrobial agents, estimated by a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were conducted by stratifying the studies into three four-year periods based on year of isolation.
Results: A total of 35 studies were included. Gentamicin had the highest pooled resistance rate (56%, 95% CI 48%-64%), while meropenem had the lowest pooled resistance rate (29%, 95% CI 20%-40%). There was an increasing trend of resistance to common antimicrobial agents of wound-isolated P. aeruginosa over a span of twelve years (2009-2020). There remained the highest risk of gentamicin resistance over time in China. Subgroup analyses indicated significantly higher resistances to ceftazidime and levofloxacin from 2017 to 2020.
Conclusions: Enhanced resistance to common antimicrobial agents in wound-isolated P. aeruginosa presents a challenge in burn wound management in mainland China. Effective stewardship programs should be established based on corresponding resistance profiles, thereby optimizing treatment options for hospitalized burn patients.

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; Burn; Nosocomial infection; Pseudomonas aeruginosa


How to cite this article:
Guo L, Xu H, Yue Z. Antibiotic resistance pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound isolates among Chinese burn patients: A systematic review and meta analysis. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2022;15:17-25

How to cite this URL:
Guo L, Xu H, Yue Z. Antibiotic resistance pattern of Pseudomonas aeruginosa wound isolates among Chinese burn patients: A systematic review and meta analysis. Asian Pac J Trop Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Jun 28];15:17-25. Available from: https://www.apjtm.org/text.asp?2022/15/1/17/335703




  1. Introduction Top


Burns are a serious public health problem worldwide, accounting for an estimated 180 000 deaths anually. The majority of these fatal cases occur in the South-East Asia regions[1]. Infection following non-fatal burn injuries serves as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Hospitalized burn victims are predisposed to infection. It is reported that the incidence density of nosocomial infections (NIs) was 9.6 per 1 000 patient-days in Chinese burn patients and NIs significantly contributed to increased fatal outcomes[2]. Given that thermal injury results in the loss of skin protective barrier against the microbial entry and a concomitant state of immune system dysregulation, the burn wound surface provides a protein-rich environment conducive to the colonization and growth of endogenous and exogenous microorganisms[3],[4]. Burn wound infection (BWI) has always been a great challenge of burn care[3].

Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa is one of the most ubiquitous gram-negative pathogens isolated from infected burn wounds, with its large repertoire of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance traits[3]. P. aeruginosa has evolved in parallel with the development of treatment options and enhanced antimicrobial resistance is posing a menace to the lives of burn patients, associated with a more significant global burden on health care[5]. There is no exception for China, where the burnt are also threatened by infections with P. aeruginosa. More importantly, there exists a lack of comprehensive studies pertaining to antibiotic resistance in wound-isolated P. aeruginosa. Herein, the present systematic scoping review and meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate updated resistance profiles to antimicrobial agents in wound-isolated P. aeruginosa among Chinese burnt patients through systematically collating findings published in the last decade, thereby providing reference information on the primary use of antibiotics on burn treatment and contributing to bacterial infection control.


  2. Materials and methods Top


This study conformed to the Scoping Review Extension of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISM-ScR guidelines)[6].

2.1. Search strategy

A comprehensive literature search was conducted to retrieve eligible articles in electronic databases supplemented by cross-checking references of relevant papers before April 2021. Given the focus on a more updated resistance profile in our study, searches were limited to publications after 2010. Because there was a gap between the period of study and publication, studies that were carried out in 2009 were also included. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, China Wanfang Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The following keywords were used in combinations for searching: ‘burn patients’, ‘burn wound’, ‘burn wound infection’, ‘infected burn wound’, ‘Pseudomonas aeruginosa’, ‘P. aeruginosa’, ‘drug resistance’, ‘antimicrobial resistance’, and ‘antibiotic resistance’. Two independent reviewers initially screened the retrieved searches based on titles and abstracts and made subsequent full-text reviews for potentially eligible articles. Differences were settled through a discussion with a third reviewer.

2.2. Eligibility criteria

Studies were included in the analysis if the following criteria were satisfied: (1) study population are hospitalized burnt patients in mainland China; (2) at least twenty strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from clinical burn wound specimens based on standard laboratory tests; (3) mentioning the approach that were used for antibiotic resistance test and it should be up to laboratory standards; (4) reporting sufficient information for analysis of antimicrobial-resistant P. aeruginosa, and reporting results of resistance to at least two antibiotics. None but full-length manuscripts written in English or Chinese were considered eligible for the present analysis. Case reports, reviews, editorials, letters, or conference abstracts were rejected.

2.3. Data items

Two reviewers independently extracted the following data from included studies into a pre-established Excel form: first author, year of publication, geographic location, time of enrollment, characteristics of enrolled subjects (mean age, sex, total body surface area, etc.), total number of pathogens found in burn wound and the number of P. aeruginosa strains detected, the approach used to determine P. aeruginosa, method and criteria used for antimicrobial resistance test, the number of wound-isolated P. aeruginosa resistant to antipseudomonal antibiotics. Based on international guidelines, we chose the following eleven widely prescribed antibiotics for investigation of resistance profiles in the setting of meta-analysis: imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM), cefepime (FEP), ceftazidime (CAZ), piperacillin (PIP), piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP), aztreonam (ATM), amikacin (AMK), gentamicin (GEN), ciprofloxacin (CIP), and levofloxacin (LVX)[7]. Plus, data for polymyxin B (PMB) or colistin (CST) was also extracted when available. Intermediate isolates were included in the resistance rate calculation. For studies reporting year-stratified results, their analyses were considered separate reports. Two reviewers checked with each other after data were captured and any difference was solved through discussion.

2.4. Quality assessment

Two independent reviewers evaluated the methodological quality of included studies using a risk of bias tool provided by Hoy et al[8]. The tool modified based on our application comprises ten items plus a summary evaluation. An individual study was awarded one point in each item if judged to have a low risk of bias. In summary assessment, articles with a total point ranging from 8-10, 6-7, or 0-5 were deemed to have an overall low, moderate, or high risk of bias, respectively. The summary risk of bias graph was generated using RevMan version 5.3[9]. Consultation was conducted with a third reviewer in case of any disagreement.

2.5. Data synthesis

Data synthesis was conducted using Stata version 15.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX). A random-effect model was developed to calculate pooled prevalence for resistance to each antimicrobial agent with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The Freeman-Tukey’s double arcsine transformation was adopted in case of studies with estimated proportions of 0% or 100%[9]. Heterogeneity across studies was quantified by the I2 statistics, with an I2>50% regarded as having a significant degree of heterogeneity[9]. Subgroup analyses were generated according to year of isolation. We stratified studies into three four-year subgroups: (1) 2009-2012; (2) 2013-2016; (3) 2017-2020. If a study reported cumulative data spanning two four-year periods, the midpoint of study duration was used for stratification. For example, a study reporting a cumulative resistance profile for strains isolated between 2011 and 2015, was classified into the ‘2013-2016’ subgroup based on its midpoint mainly lying on 2013. Results of subgroup analyses were managed and used for chart making, using Microsoft Excel software. Test of interaction was employed to compare effect estimates between subgroups and a P-value<0.05 demonstrated that there was proof of statistical significance[10]. Additional sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the impact of an individual study by omitting one each time. Publication bias was evaluated under the Egger’s test if the number of included studies was at least ten, with a P-value <0.05 as suggestive of significant bias[9].


  3. Results Top


3.1. Study selection

A total of 813 records were retrieved through prior searches of four electronic databases. Reviewers scanning by titles and abstracts after removal of duplicated entries resulted in 189 publications receiving a subsequent full-text assessment for inclusion. Finally, 35 articles were selected in the enrollment of meta-analysis. [Figure 1] sets out the flow diagram of study selection.
Figure 1: PRISMA flowchart of study identification. PRISMA: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses; P.A: Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Click here to view


3.2. Study characteristics and quality assessment

[Table 1] displays the main characteristics among included studies. These observational studies, written in Chinese, reported descriptive data provided by single-centres localized in three chartered cities and 18 provinces in mainland China[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24],[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34],[35],[36],[37],[38],[39],[40],[41],[42],[43],[44],[45]. Thus, most of the included studies were ranked as having a high risk of bias in terms of Item 1-3 presented in [Figure 2]. The vast majority of selected studies made use of Kirby-Bauer (K-B) disk diffusion for testing antimicrobial resistance. The mean age among enrolled burnt victims ranged from 23.7 to 62.5 years, except for three studies only contributing data of pediatric burn cases[14],[25],[30]. Twenty-eight studies performed tests following the guidelines provided by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI; formerly NCCLS), while 6 articles[14], [18, [19,[24],[25],[42] failed to mention guidelines and were considered having a high risk of bias with regard to Item 7 [Figure 2]. Additionally, studies that did not well-describe the mode of sample collection were awarded a ‘No’ answer for Item 8. As shown in [Figure 2] which illustrates a summary of quality appraisal, there is an overall moderate risk of bias among included studies.
Figure 2: Quality assessment of the included studies.

Click here to view
Table 1: Baseline characteristics of included studies.

Click here to view


3.3. Resistance profile for wound-isolated P. aeruginosa

A total of 14 598 strains of pathogens causing bacterial infection were isolated from burn wound specimens, of which 2 988 strains of P. aeruginosa were detected. The total isolation rate of P. aeruginosa collected from burn wounds was 20.5% and the overall prevalence pooled by 35 studies was 21% (95% CI 18%-24%, I2=94.4%) among Chinese burn victims between 2009 and 2020. [Table 2] summarizes antimicrobial-resistant P. aeruginosa reported in each included study and [Table 3] shows the overall combined prevalence of wound-isolated P. aeruginosa resistant to 11 commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents. The highest level of pooled resistance was observed against GEN (56%), while the lowest degree of resistance was found against MEM (29%). Forest plots for overall estimates of each agent are provided in supplementary figures. High heterogeneity was suggested through the analysis but no individual study was found to neither decrease the significant degree of heterogeneity nor affect the general outcomes based on leave-one-out sensitivity analyses, which demonstrated the robustness of results. According to the Egger’s test, no potential bias was observed except for the analysis of CIP (P=0.035) [Table 3].
Table 2: Summary of antimicrobial agents tested among included studies.

Click here to view
Table 3: Summary of overall prevalence of resistance to eleven antimicrobial agents.

Click here to view


Summarized outcomes regarding subgroup analyses stratified by 3 four-year periods are shown in [Table 4], illustrating the change in consolidated resistance of wound-isolated P. aeruginosa to the most important antibiotics over time. Moderately high resistances to antibiotics were seen during the period from 2009-2012, where there was the highest proportion of GEN-resistant strains (61%) and the lowest proportion of MEM-resistant strains (30%) among P. aeruginosa isolates. Compared with the first four-year period, an overall decreased trend in resistances to commonly used antimicrobial agents was observed in the second four-year period (2013-2016), despite no significant differences between two subgroups (P=0.15). The pooled resistance to GEN (48%) remained the highest during 2013-2016, but a declined trend in GEN resistance in this period could be observed when it was compared to that during 2009-2012 (P=0.058). Except for AMK, all of the antibiotics were subject to increased drug resistance in the third four-year period (2017-2020) comparing with those in 2009-2012 and 2013-2016, where the highest and lowest level of resistance was found against GEN (72%) and AMK (31%), respectively. Of note, pooled resistance rates of CAZ and LVX were significantly elevated in the third period, compared with the first and second periods (P<0.05).
Table 4: Summary of subgroup analyses according to year of isolation.

Click here to view


In addition, there was a considerably lower proportion of wound-isolated P. aeruginosa resistant to PMB (pooled resistance: 1%, 95% CI 0%-3%), based on four included studies[29],[30],[31],[40]. Two articles[16],[37] contributed data to the analysis of CST resistance and the pooled result was 31% (95% CI 19%-44%).


  4. Discussion Top


Antimicrobial resistance in China has become a serious public health issue, with increased resistance rates of most prevalent bacteria in clinically important antimicrobial agents[46]. To our knowledge, this is the first scoping review and meta-analysis investigating the antimicrobial resistance profile of wound-isolated P. aeruginosa among Chinese burn patients referring to publications in the recent decade. Based on 2 988 strains of P. aeruginosa collected from wound samples of hospitalized burn patients during 2009-2020 in China, we found a prevalence of more than 28% in resistance to commonly used antipseudomonal drugs. Subgroup analyses indicated that there was an increasing trend of antimicrobial resistance of wound-isolated P. aeruginosa over time.

Regarding resistance to aminoglycosides, pooled results suggested the highest risk of GEN resistance among Chinese burn patients infected with P. aeruginosa, irrespective of time. In comparison to other common antibiotics, continuously higher resistances to GEN were found during 2009-2020, ranging from 48% to 61%. According to Xiao et al[46], the resistance rates of P. aeruginosa to GEN were high in China over the past decade (2000-2009), and our results indicated that GEN resistance remained prevalent in the subsequent years. Subgroup comparison suggested a nearly significant trend in declined GEN resistance from the first four-year to the second one (P=0.058), which might be attributed to effective control to the use of GEN at that time based on its resistance profile as showed before. The resistance rates to GEN, however, greatly rose again in recent years. In contrast, there existed relatively lower pooled 12-year resistances to AMK in the range of 31%-42%, which is also consistent with the trend in 2000-2009[46],[47]. Given the higher resistance to GEN, reduced use of this antibiotic should be taken into account in the setting of treating burn wounds without knowledge of results of drug resistance testing, whereas AMK can act as the first choice because of its low resistance potential when considering using aminoglycosides.

The increasing rates of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated from infected wounds represent a challenge to antibiotics therapy for burn wound infection in China. IPM and MEM resistances against P. aeruginosa collected from various types of samples were reported to be 28% and 24.4% on average, respectively, in the period of 2000-2009[47]. The pooled resistance for the subsequent 12 years was 33% and 29%, respectively, in the present analysis. The synergistic effect of multiple mechanisms of chromosomal resistance mainly contributes to carbapenem resistance[46]. Carbapenem exhibits a notable stability to most β-lactamases without high toxicity, thereby serving as the primary choice for severe Gram-negative infections currently[31],[48]. Increased therapeutic exposure affected by the easier access to this kind of antibiotics also led to furtherance. Despite increased resistance showed in the overall results, it is still plausible to take carbapenem into account for the first-line treatment of severe burn wound infections when there is a lack of drug sensitivity test, based on its potent antibacterial activity and our results showing relatively high sensitivity to carbapenems compared with other antibiotics. PMB and CST comprise a last-line therapy for life-threatening infections, such as carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, yet their universal application is limited by their important toxicity issues[49]. We observed that wound-isolated P. aeruginosa presented higher susceptibility to PMB (pooled resistance: 1%) and moderately high susceptibility to CST (pooled resistance: 31%), The latter might be affected by the very small number of included studies. Polymixins can be considered in the case of burn wounds severely infected by carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa.

In the pooling analysis of resistance to LVX and CAZ, statistical significance was observed among year-stratified subgroup comparisons. It was noted that the pooled resistance to CAZ in the most recent four-year period (2017-2020) was significantly higher than that in 2009-2012 (69% versus 38%, P<0.05) and 2013-2016 (67% versus 31%, P<0.01), respectively. Similarly, the pooled resistance to LVX in 2017-2020 was remarkably elevated, as compared to that in 2009-2012 (67% versus 37%, P<0.05) and 2013-2016 (67% versus 28%, P<0.01), respectively. Factors at play could lie in the compromised use of CIP and resultant increased LVX exposure in recent years. Additionally, the production of β-lactamase contributed to elevated CAZ resistance[46].

An awareness of the importance of drug control should be noted in burn wound management. Constant evaluation of wound samples and careful monitoring of antimicrobial resistance is needed to help physicians select the best treatment options for burn patients to avoid treatment failure. Besides, more effective antibiotic stewardship programs should be established. Each burn unit has its own system of surveillance and should be thoroughly sterilized periodically.

We acknowledged that the present study possessed some key limitations. Circumspection should be in order when interpreting these data because it remained unclear whether or not enrolled subjects among included studies could be representative of the national population as shown in our quality assessment. There existed a lack of studies conducted in other places in China and studies that were conducted in the more recent period. The study design of included studies was also limited to our study, as most of them were retrospective single-centre studies. More multicenter studies in a prospective design are encouraged in the future. Another limitation was high heterogeneity throughout the analysis. Intrinsic geographic differences unavoidably generated heterogeneous antimicrobial-resistant patterns. The drugs indicated for burn wound management were likely to vary from region to region and drug delivery patterns could change according to the prescription of local physicians. Moreover, those drugs they used might come from multiple pharmaceutical manufacturers. In addition, when analyzing the pooled resistance to CIP, we noticed the existence of publication bias. The reason for that might be that the investigators selectively examined the resistance to fluoroquinolones.

In summary, increasing antimicrobial-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from burn wounds remain a challenge for burn caring in mainland China. It is therefore considered prudent to make the constant monitoring of wound-isolated P. aeruginosa and establish more effective antibiotic stewardship programs according to corresponding antimicrobial resistance profile, to prevent treatment failure and select the best treatment options. Meanwhile, more publications are encouraged for better surveillance of resistant patterns and illumination of therapeutic options.

Conflicts of interest statement

The authors declare that there are no conflict of interest statement.

Authors’ contributions

GLJ designed the study, performed the literature search, extracted data, and wrote the manuscript. XH performed the literature search, extracted data, done the quality assessment and assisted in manuscript review. YZG was responsible for study design, quality assessment, and revision of manuscript. All the authors analyzed the data and approved the manuscript draft.



 
  References Top

1.
World Health Organization. WHO media center fact sheets: Burns. 2018. [Online]. Available from: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/ detail/burns. [Accessed on 21 July 2021].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Guo HL, Zhao GJ, Ling XW, Xu JJ, Lu CJ, Liu ZJ. Using competing risk and multistate model to estimate the impact of nosocomial infection on length of stay and mortality in burn patients in Southeast China. BMJ Open 2019; 8(11): e020527. doi: http://10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020527.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Church D, Elsayed S, Reid O, Winston B, Lindsay R. Burn wound infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 2006; 19(2): 403-434.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Norbury W, Herndon DN, Tanksley J, Jeschke MG, Finnerty CC. Infection in burns. Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2016; 17(2): 250-255.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Lachiewicz AM, Hauck CG, Weber DJ, Cairns BA, van Duin D. Bacterial infections after burn injuries: Impact of multidrug resistance. Clin Infect Dis 2017; 65(12): 2130-2136.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, O’Brien KK, Colquhoun H, Levac D, et al. PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and explanation. Ann Intern Med 2018; 169(7): 467-473.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Magiorakos AP, Srinivasan A, Carey RB, Carmeli Y, Falagas ME, Giske CG, et al. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: An international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18(3): 268-281.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Hoy D, Brooks P, Woolf A, Blyth F, March L, Bain C, et al. Assessing risk of bias in prevalence studies: Modification of an existing tool and evidence of interrater agreement. J Clin Epidemiol 2012; 65(9): 934-939.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Higgins JPT, Green S. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. 5.2.0 ed. Chichester (UK): John Wiley & Sons; 2017.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Altman DG, Bland JM. Interaction revisited: The difference between two estimates. BMJ 2003; 326(7382): 219.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Chen C, Fan YF, Wu WW, Xu XM, Yang D. Distribution and drug susceptibility of pathogens causing wound infections in burn patients. Chin J Nosocomiol 2014; 24(4): 841-843.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Chen LL, Zhao L, Gao BW. Distribution and drug resistance analysis of wound-isolated pathogens at a single-center burn unit in Qinghai. J High Alt Med 2017; 27(2): 60-62.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Cheng Z, Zhou JW, Zhou J, Chen JS, Li HM, Li TC, et al. Risk factors and pathogens of wound infection in burn patients. Chin J Infect Chemother 2021; 21(3): 258-263.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Dai KQ, Yi LJ, Chen QY. Investigation of bacterial species distribution and drug resistance of children with burn wound infection. Chin J Disinfect 2012; 29(6): 484-486.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Han DZ, Sun WJ, Yao XW, Liu YH, Ge L. Analysis of distribution and antimicrobial resistance of burn wound pathogens. People’s Mil Surg 2016; 59(12): 1242-1245.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Han XY, Zhang JZ, Zhang CJ, Dong AY, Geng HM. Distribution and drug resistance analysis of microorganisms from burn wound infection. Chin J Coal Ind Med 2017; 20(5): 529-532.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Han Y. Characteristics of pathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with infected burn wounds and analysis of drug resistance. World Latest Med Inf 2020; 20(51): 29-30.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Han ZJ, Wang XL. Bacteriology and antimicrobial resistance of burn wounds. Chin J Mod Drug Appl 2014; 8(2): 166-167.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Huang CX, Chen SX, Tan MH. Characteristics and drug susceptibility analysis of pathogenic bacteria in patients with bacterial infection in burn wounds. J Chin Prescr Drug 2019; 17(4): 39-40.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Li GF, Wang XN, Qin YH. Pathogenic distribution and drug resistance of bacteria from wound infections in burn patients. Hubei Med 2013; 19(12): 1830-1833.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Liu J, Fu JF, Wei DN. Distribution characteristics and drug resistance of wound surface bacteria in patients with burns. Med & Pharm J Chin PLA 2013; 25(12): 20-23.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Liu SF. Investigation of bacterial spectrum and drug resistance analysis of pathogens in burn patients. J Clin Med Lit 2019; 6(4): 33-34.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Luo XP, Zhou Y, Huang ZM. The distribution and drug resistance analysis of bacteria isolated from burn wound. J Bengbu Med Coll 2015; 40(9): 1247-1249.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Lv M. Pathogenic bacteria distribution and drug resistance observation of early wound infection in burn patients. Chin Community Doct 2015; 2015(11): 6-7.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Ma QH, Chen QY, He JF, Hu Y. Distribution character and drug resistance analysis of pathogenic bacteria in burn wound of children in Ningbo during 2011-2015. Chin J Health Lab Tec 2017; 27(9): 1347-1350.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Meng JS, Lin GA, Li WJ, Yuan SA, Shang XZ. Sensitivity investigation of anti-bacterial agents and bacteriology of a burn wound and selection of anti-bacterial agents. Chin J Burns Wounds & Surface Ulcers 2012; 24(2): 138-142.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Peng J, Liu N, Lei Y, Yuan Y. Distribution and sensitivity analysis of pathogens causing wound infection in burn patients. For All Health 2014; 11: 129-130.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Qin QH. Distribution and drug resistance analysis of pathogens in burn wounds. Clin Med (Northfield Il) 2013; 33(12): 75-76.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Qiu GW, Zhu JM, Cui YZ, Sun ZG. Distribution and drug resistance of Gram-negative bacteria in burn wounds. Infect Inflammation Repair 2014; 15(3): 177-178.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Song JH, Xia ZG, Huang Q, Li XZ, Yu YX, Xu YH, et al. Investigation of pathogenic bacteria and analysis of antibiotic sensitivity about children’s wound infection in burn ward. Chin J Injury Repair Wound Healing 2019; 14(1): 46-51.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Sun AM, Wang W. Study on the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens in the infectious burn wound. Chin J Disinfect 2015; 32(12): 1180-1182.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Sun ZH. Distribution and drug resistance analysis of wound secretion pathogen in high temperature liquid burn patients. Med Lab Sci Clin 2014; 25(5): 36-38.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Wang JY, Zou FY, Li LL, Xu XR, Zhang CD, Zhu ZY, et al. Distribution and drug resistance of pathogens causing early wound infections in burn patients. Chin J Nosocomiol 2014; 24(18): 4445-4447.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Wang L, Mou J, Wu Y, Fang F, Xu J, Liu X, et al. Bacterial flora and drug resistance of burn wound secretions. Chin J Public Health 2013; 29(9): 1401-1402.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Wang NY, Chen GQ. Wound-isolated pathogens in burn patients and corresponding analysis of drug resistance. Med Inf 2013; 26(10): 408.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Wang Y, Zheng DY, Cheng DW, Yan XH. Distribution and drug resistance of pathogens causing burn wound infection. Chin J Nosocomiol 2015; 25(4): 5663-5665.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Xia SH, Shen J, Yang HY, Zhou Y, Zhu JM, Huang ZM. Distribution and antibiotic resistance of main gram-negative bacteria isolated from wound surface of inpatients in orthopaedics department and burn department. Chin J Nosocomiol 2017; 27(3): 597-601.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Yang XB, Liu XL, Zhou LK. Distribution and drug resistance analysis of pathogens causing burn wound infection. Int J Lab Med 2015; 2015(21): 3179-3180.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Zeng YB, Yin CM, Wang LQ, Chen GS. Distribution and drug resistance analysis of pathogens in infected burn wounds. Zhejiang Clin Med J 2017; 19(3): 495-497.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Zhang C, Gong YL, Luo XQ, Liu MX, Peng YZ. Analysis of distribution and drug resistance of pathogens from the wounds of 1310 thermal burn patients. Chin J Burns 2018; 34(11): 802-808.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Zhang HS. Investigation of pathogenic bacteria causing burn wound infection and analysis of drug-resistance. Int J Lab Med 2012; 33(15): 1832-1833.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Zhang WB. Investigation of distribution and drug resistance in patients with burn wound infection. Med Lab Sci Clin 2018; 29(3): 54-55, 58.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Zhou G. Analysis and drug sensitivity of bacteria from burn wounds. Med Inf 2014; 27(6): 98-99.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Zhou NX, Lin LD, Long ZL, Wu ZM, Ling SM, Qiu H. Bacteriology investigation of burn wounds and the corresponding drug susceptibility analysis. Chin Med Pharm 2014; 4(12): 47-49.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Zou SH, Li JL, Guan HN, Zhang LQ. Distribution and drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria in wound secretions of burn patients in a hospital from 2015 to 2016. Exp Lab Med 2018; 36(6): 938-939, 946.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Xiao YH, Giske CG, Wei ZQ, Shen P, Heddini A, Li LJ. Epidemiology and characteristics of antimicrobial resistance in China. Drug Resist Updat 2011; 14(4-5): 236-250.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Lai CC, Lee K, Xiao Y, Ahmad N, Veeraraghavan B, Thamlikitkul V, et al. High burden of antimicrobial drug resistance in Asia. J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2014; 2(3): 141-147.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Bush K, Bradford PA. Beta-lactams and beta-lactamase inhibitors: An overview. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2016; 6(8): a025247.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Velkov T, Roberts KD. Discovery of novel polymyxin-like antibiotics. Adv Exp Med Biol 2019; 1145: 343-362.  Back to cited text no. 49
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  2. Materials and...
  In this article
Abstract
1. Introduction
3. Results
4. Discussion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1182    
    Printed12    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded184    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal