|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 9 | Page : 385-400
Foodborne parasitic diseases in China: A scoping review on current situation, epidemiological trends, prevention and control
Langui Song1, Qingxing Xie2, Zhiyue Lv2
1 The Eighth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
2 Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of Ministry of Education; NHC Key Laboratory of Control of Tropical Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Hainan Medical University, Haikou; Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control, Sun Yat-sen University, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou, China
|Date of Submission||15-Apr-2021|
|Date of Decision||05-Jul-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||10-Aug-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||28-Sep-2021|
The Eighth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong
Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of Ministry of Education; NHC Key Laboratory of Control of Tropical Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Hainan Medical University, Haikou; Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control, Sun Yat-sen University, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou
Source of Support: This work was supported by the Major Science and Technology Program of Hainan Province (Grant No. ZDKJ202003), Grants from the Key Research and Development Program of Hainan Province (Grant No. ZDYF2020120), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81572023 and 81371836), the Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 2019A1515011541), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2019B030316025), the National Parasitic Resources Center of China (Grant No. NPRC-2019-194-30), the Open Foundation of Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Hainan Medical University (Grant No. 2020TTM007), the 111 Project (Grant No. B12003), and the Teaching Reform Project of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2017001), Conflict of Interest: None
Objective: Foodborne parasitic diseases, although with a declining overall incidence rate, are still endangering local public safety. This review aims to describe the current situation and epidemiological trends of foodborne parasitic diseases in China in order to explore possible reasons contributors to its high prevalence in some areas, and propose strategies for prevention and control accordingly.
Methods: A scoping review was conducted by searching PubMed, CNKI, Wanfang, CQVIP, Embase, and the Cochrane Library using search formula “foodborne parasitic diseases (or foodborne parasites)” AND “China”. Studies on foodborne parasitic diseases in China were considered, but only articles in English or Chinese published between January 1980 and June 2020 were retrieved. Included studies were screened according to the eligibility criteria: 1) diseases consistent with the WHO definition of foodborne parasitic diseases; 2) the food carriers were included in the WHO food classification; 3) data related to epidemiology, pathogenicity, and prevention and control; 4) Foodborne parasitic diseases cases or outbreaks in China.
Results: A total of 111 out of 665 records were included and summarized. The prevalence of clonorchiasis, angiostrongyliasis, echinococcosis, trichinellosis and cysticercosis was still increasing although the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes has substantially decreased in recent years. Diverse eating habits, close contact with animals, and urbanization were contributing factors to the increase.
Conclusions: Foodborne parasitic diseases remain an important public health issue in China with the progress of economic globalization and food diversification. We should manage to raise public awareness about the prevention and control of foodborne parasitic diseases, improve health and safety inspections, as well as public health practice.
Keywords: Foodborne diseases; Parasitic diseases; China; Preventive medicine
|How to cite this article:|
Song L, Xie Q, Lv Z. Foodborne parasitic diseases in China: A scoping review on current situation, epidemiological trends, prevention and control. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2021;14:385-400
|How to cite this URL:|
Song L, Xie Q, Lv Z. Foodborne parasitic diseases in China: A scoping review on current situation, epidemiological trends, prevention and control. Asian Pac J Trop Med [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Sep 29];14:385-400. Available from: https://www.apjtm.org/text.asp?2021/14/9/385/326252
| 1. Introduction|| |
Foodborne parasitic diseases are acquired through the ingestion of food or drinking water contaminated with the infective stage of parasites. The diseases present some unique challenges and are often referred to as neglected diseases, which might result in major public health and socioeconomic problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) found in 2006 that 7% of foodborne diseases in the world are caused by parasites; meanwhile, in China, approximately 150 million people were reported to suffer from foodborne parasitic zoonoses in 2005 and more people were at risk. Transmission and prevalence are mainly associated with human behavior patterns of preparing food and dietary habits. The populations in endemic areas usually have formed related dietary traditions and customs of eating raw or undercooked food. However, their habits and traditions are difficult to change. In addition, the life cycles of parasites might be extremely complicated, which may include multiple intermediate hosts and definite hosts, and some of them may become food. In addition, the parasites themselves might contaminate food or water. The WHO classifies food causing foodborne parasitic diseases into five categories: land animals (i.e., beef, pork and poultry), aquatic animals (i.e., marine fish, freshwater fish, shellfish and aquatic mammals), dairy products, plants (i.e., berries, fruits, leafy greens and vegetables) and others (i.e., snakes, frogs and insects) [Figure 1]. To date, a ninety-three foodborne parasites have been identified, and some of them may lead to severe illness and even death. In this paper, the classification, prevalence and prevention and control strategies for foodborne parasitic diseases are reviewed to provide new insights for better control of foodborne parasitic diseases in China.
|Figure 1: Five food categories and related foodborne parasitic diseases.|
Click here to view
| 2. Materials and methods|| |
2.1. Search strategy
We searched the term “foodborne parasitic diseases (or foodborne parasites)” AND “China” in three English and three Chinese electronic databases, including PubMed (https://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pubmed/), Embase (www.embase.com/), Cochrane Library (www.cochranelibrary.com/), CNKI (www.cnki.net), Wanfang (www.wanfangdata.con.cn) and CQVIP (http://www.cqvip.com/). After reading the title/abstract or the full article if necessary, we summarized the current situation, epidemiological trend and its characteristics, and the prevention and control of foodborne parasitic diseases in China. Then, we searched every genus we found in the first step (such as Clonorchis, Opisthorchis, etc.) AND epidemiology (or infection or pathogenicity) AND China. Finally, we searched every genus we mentioned (such as Anisakis, Gongylonema, etc.) AND case report (or misdiagnosis) from 1980 to 2020 in China. Manual searching was not performed, and the gray literature was not searched neither.
2.2. Eligibility criteria
Papers were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: 1) consistent with the WHO definition of foodborne parasitic diseases; 2) the food carriers were included in the WHO food classification; 3) presented information related to epidemiology, pathogenicity, and prevention and control; 4) written in English or Chinese; 5) published during January 1, 1980, to June 10, 2020; and 6) the case or outbreak occurred in China.
2.3. Data extraction, summary and data charting process
We extracted information from the included studies under the following categories: 1) the classification, prevalence and pathogenicity of foodborne parasitic diseases; 2) the epidemiological trends and characteristics of foodborne parasitic diseases; and 3) the prevention and control strategies for foodborne parasitic diseases. Two authors independently assessed eligibility, extracted data and cross-check results with disagreements resolved by consensus.
| 3. Results|| |
3.1. Search findings
Six hundred sixty-five records were retrieved. After excluding 21 records due to lack of full text, 4 records due to duplication, and 529 records that met the exclusion criteria mentioned above, 111 records were eventually included in this review. [Figure 2] presents a flowchart of the selection process.
3.2. The classification, prevalence and pathogenicity of foodborne parasitic diseases in China
The foodborne parasitic diseases that have been identified or posed a potential threat in China are summarized and listed in [Table 1],[Table 2],[Table 3],[Table 4]. The pathogens are divided based on the biological classification of parasites (trematodes, nematodes, cestodes and protozoa) and are further classified according to the five major food sources mentioned above. Under each classification, the distribution, parasitic site and pathogenicity are recorded. Among them, foodborne trematode and cestode infections are numerous, widely distributed, closely related to diseases, and diverse in pathogenicity, thus attracting the most widespread attention. However, relatively few epidemiological investigations have been conducted on foodborne nematode and protozoan diseases in China.
|Table 1: Types, distribution and pathogenicity of foodborne trematode infections in China.|
Click here to view
|Table 2: Types, distribution and pathogenicity of foodborne nematode infections in China.|
Click here to view
|Table 3: Types, distribution and pathogenicity of foodborne cestode infections in China.|
Click here to view
|Table 4: Types, distribution and pathogenicity of foodborne protozoan infections in China.|
Click here to view
Regarding the epidemiological distribution, information on the spatial distribution is relatively complete. However, few studies have examined the temporal and population distributions. For the study of pathogenicity, the location of the parasite and the possible symptoms and signs or pathological changes have been clearly documented, but few studies have investigated the specific pathogenic mechanism.
3.2.1. Foodborne trematode infections
Foodborne trematode diseases are mainly transmitted by the consumption of raw or undercooked food such as fish, crustaceans and vegetables that harbor the larval stages of the parasites. A national survey conducted in 2005 showed that human clonorchiasis is endemic in 27 provinces, with the largest number of infected people (~5.5 million) in Guangdong; human paragonimiasis is prevalent in 24 provinces, with the highest prevalence in Shanghai (5.1%) and Chongqing (4.1%), respectively. Fasciolopsiasis was formerly one of the most dominant trematodes, as revealed by the first national survey between 1988 and 1992, and was distributed across 16 provinces with 9 531 infections; 148 people were infected with Fasciola (F.) hepatica, and 9 people were infected with F. gigantica. The types, distribution and pathogenicity of common foodborne trematode infections in China are listed in [Table 1], which includes trematodes carried by aquatic animals such as Clonorchis and Opisthorchis,, Heterophyes, Echinostoma, Gymnophalloides seoi and Paragonimus,,, and trematodes carried by plants such as Fasciolopsis and Fasciola,.
3.2.2. Foodborne nematode infections
Human parasitic nematodes are widely distributed in nature and are found in water and soil. Most of them are free-living, but a small proportion parasitize the human body and cause disease. Although comprehensive data on the prevalence of foodborne nematodes in China are still lacking, we can retrieve information on some common nematodes separately. Human trichinellosis is serious in several provinces, such as Yunnan and Inner Mongolia, where it has a mean prevalence of 8.3% and 6.3%, respectively in 2005. Approximately 400 cases of human angiostrongyliasis have been reported in China. The types, distribution and pathogenicity of common foodborne nematode infections in China are listed in [Table 2], which includes nematodes transferred by aquatic animals such as Gnathostoma, Anisakis, Angiostrongylus,, and Dioctophyme; nematodes transferred by land animals such as Trichinella; nematodes transferred by plants such as Trichostrongylus; and nematodes transferred by other contaminated food or water such as Dracunculus, Ascaris, Toxocara, Enterobius, Gongylonema, Trichuris, Capillaria, Syngamus and Rhabditis,.
3.2.3. Foodborne cestode infections
Most cestode adults live in the digestive tract of vertebrates, and their larvae can migrate throughout the body, resulting in visceral and cutaneous larval migrants. Cysticercosis is one of the most serious foodborne parasitic diseases, and people might acquire an infection by eating food or drinking water contaminated with the eggs of Taenia (T.) solium or self-infection caused by eggs entering the stomach with vomiting. It was reported in 29 provinces of China with ~550 thousand infections according to a national survey conducted in 2005. Echinococcosis is another important parasitic disease that is now becoming the key parasitic disease in China, with 380 thousand infections, and ~50 million individuals are at risk of infection based on a report published in 2005. In addition, ~1 000 cases of human sparganosis were reported in 22 provinces due to the ingestion of raw frogs or snakes or drinking water contamininated with eggs in 2006. The types, distribution and pathogenicity of common foodborne cestode infections in China are listed in [Table 3], which includes cestodes transferred by aquatic animals such as Spirometra and Diphyllobothrium,; cestodes transferred by land animals such as Taenia,,; and cestodes transferred by other contaminated food or water such as Echinococcus,, Hymenolepis, Dipylidium and Bertiella studeri.
Although we included Taenia in the category of land animals, we should always remember that cysticercosis is acquired by eating food contaminated with eggs of T. solium, and thus we listed it separately in [Table 3]. Additionally, in rare cases, humans can be accidentally infected with T. taeniaeformis and T. hydatigena by inadvertently eating their eggs and infected with Mesocestoides lineatus by ingesting the muscles or organs of animals such as frogs and snakes that contain tetrathyridium.
3.2.4. Foodborne protozoal infections
Approximately forty protozoan species are able to infect humans. Due to the lack of effective vaccines and difficulties in vector control, many protozoal infections are still a global public health problem. Human infection with Giardia lamblia and Toxoplasma gondii has been documented in every mainland province of China. The mean infection rate of the latter is 7.9% nationwide. Human cases of cryptosporidiosis have been recorded in 14 provinces, and according to a survey conducted in Zhejiang Province in 2000, Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 57 of 548 children with diarrhea (10.4%). The types, distribution and pathogenicity of foodborne protozoan infections in China are listed in [Table 4], which includes protozoa carried by land animals such as Sarcocystis, protozoa carried by plants such as Trypanosoma, and protozoa carried by other contaminated food or water such as Trichomonas hominis, Giardia, Lophomonas, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Balantidium and Blastocystis,.
3.2.5. Prevention and control strategies
Studeis on typical cases of common foodborne parasitic diseases reported in China and their diagnosis and treatment are listed in [Table 5],,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, which helps us learn lessons and propose better control strategies.
|Table 5: Typical cases of common foodborne parasitic diseases in China and their diagnosis and treatment.|
Click here to view
| 4. Discussion|| |
4.1. The epidemiological trends and characteristics of foodborne parasitic diseases in China
From 1980 to the present, China conducted three national surveys on the distribution of human parasites ranging from 1988-1992, 2001-2004, and, most recently, 2014-2016. In the three surveys, the total infection rates of human parasites were 55.27%, 21.38% and 3.41%, respectively. The infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes across the country has been substantially reduced in recent years, which is closely related to the social and economic development and the adoption of scientific prevention measures in China. However, the prevalence of food-transmitted parasitic diseases such as trichinellosis, clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis, and echinococcosis has increased significantly. The third survey of parasitic infections in China showed that the leading causes of foodborne parasitic disease (infection rate) in China were Ascaris lumbricoides (1.36%), followed by Trichuris trichiura (1.02%) and Clonorchis sinensis (0.23%). The overall infection rates of intestinal protozoa and cestodes were 0.99% and 0.06%, respectively. The fastest-growing foodborne parasitic diseases in China included clonorchiasis, angiostrongyliasis, echinococcosis, trichinellosis and cysticercosis. In recent years, some new changes in the prevalence of foodborne parasitic diseases in China have occurred, which merit attention.
4.1.1. Eating habits change due to intra- and intercountry dietary culture exchanges
China has 56 ethnic groups and 34 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities and special administrative regions). Each region has its own unique food culture, leading to the prevalence of different types of foodborne parasitic diseases. For example, in Shunde, Guangdong, local people like to eat sashimi, and a survey conducted in 2014-2015 showed that the infection rate of Clonorchis sinensis among local residents was up to 42.38%. In Tibet, nomads have more contact with sheep, dogs, and wolves, and thus their food is more likely to be contaminated with the eggs of Echinococcus. Inspections conducted from 2012 to 2016 estimated that the prevalence of echinococcosis in the Tibetan population was 1.66%. People in Yunnan have the habit of eating raw or half-raw pork. Since 2000, 21 outbreaks of human trichinosis have been reported in Yunnan Province, with 2 256 cases and 3 deaths. Freshwater snails are widely distributed in Hainan Province, and locals have the habit of eating Ampullaria gigas. An epidemiological survey conducted in Hainan Province indicated that the positive rate of Angiostrongylus cantonensis IgG antibody in the serum was 20.3%.
In recent years, with the rapid development of tourism and the catering industry, food culture exchanges between various regions have increased rapidly, thus these so-called local diseases are no longer confined to the previous epidemic areas in China, which might lead to sporadic cases or even outbreaks. For example, Hubei and Henan reported cases of trichinosis caused by eating undercooked pork. From June to September 2006, a hospital in Beijing treated 141 patients with angiostrongyliasis, all of whom dined at a restaurant in Beijing. They all ate uncooked Ampullaria gigas from Guilin, Guangxi.
Second, with the increase in economic globalization, an increasing amount of foreign food appears on the Chinese table. If these foods are not properly processed, they are likely to carry some parasites that are not available in China or have been controlled, causing the spread or even outbreaks of new or recurring foodborne parasitic diseases. For example, in June 1998, an outbreak of imported paragonimiasis occurred in Dandong City, Liaoning Province. Among the 676 people who consumed imported river crabs, 623 had the disease, with an incidence rate of 92.2%. In 1994, the Ruili Animal and Plant Quarantine Bureau of Yunnan found 12 Anisakis larvae in imported hairtails from the Bay of Bengal. Currently, an increasing number of Chinese people are gradually accepting Japanese sushi or sashimi, which might lead to Anisakis infection.
4.1.2. Increased risk of acquiring foodborne parasitic zoonotic diseases
Most foodborne parasitic diseases are zoonotic diseases, such as echinococcosis, trichinosis and toxoplasmosis. As the economy develops, keeping a pet is becoming a new hobby of the new generation, and thus the number of people keeping pets obviously increases, which leads to increased contact with animals, and the infective stages of parasites from these animals might contaminate the food, thereby resulting in infection. For example, an epidemiological survey of cat toxoplasmosis conducted in Beijing showed that the apparent prevalence rate was 2.0% in 2014 and increased to 7.2% in 2015. Another survey carried out in areas including Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia, where residents form a habit of breeding dogs and cats, revealed a high overall parasitic infection rate in animal fecal and serum samples (20.77%), and many common foodborne parasites were detected, such as Toxocara canis (28.23% in dogs) and Toxocara cati (5.29% in cats).
4.1.3. Urbanization causes increases in population inflow and the risk of foodborne parasitic diseases
The current parasitic infection rate in rural areas is higher than that in urban areas in China. However, as the process of urbanization accelerates, an increasing number of rural populations enter cities, which may cause an increase in the infection rate of foodborne parasites in cities. For example, in the past, paragonimiasis was presumed to occur in areas with poor sanitation conditions in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Guangdong and Guangxi and rarely in cities. However, in recent years, paragonimiasis has continued to appear in cities, and the incidence is increasing annually, even showing outbreaks in families. Due to the particularity of the disease, it was called “urban paragonimiasis”.
4.2. Prevention and control strategies for foodborne parasitic diseases in China
Due to the diseases themselves (mild or nonspecific symptoms and diverse clinical symptoms), low public awareness, neglect of medical personnel and lack of sensitive and specific detection methods, misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis of foodborne parasitic diseases in the clinic occur frequently, further aggravating their harmfulness and people in the rural regions were more infected than those living in the urban areas. As shown in [Table 5], eating raw fish or meat accounted for 32.6% of the observed infection routes, drinking raw water or eating plants accounted for 13.9%, contacting animals accounts for 18.6%, and others and unknown account for 34.9%. Among all cases reported in China, many researchers have overlooked the importance of investigating the route of infection, and mostly only cases characterized by severe or chronic symptoms would be published, which may not represent the most common cases.
The basic principle of infectious disease control is to manage the three links of parasitic disease epidemics, namely, the source of infection, transmission route and susceptible people. In addition to increasing awareness of prevention, strengthening health education, reinforcing the vigilance of medical staff, and comprehensively applying laboratory inspection methods, food hygiene inspections and supervision are important. The eating habits and customs of humans are difficult to change, but further improvements in food safety could solve this problem, such as the development of a Bacillus subtilis-based fish vaccine against Clonorchis sinensis infection. In addition, efforts to restrict the contamination of food with infective stages is another solution. For instance, the detection of parasite infections in pets, livestock and wild animals should be strengthened. We can also control the source of infection by controlling the animal host. For example, if dogs were prevented from eating raw offal or were wormed, the control of Echinococcus granulosus might improve.
In addition, the prevention and control of foodborne parasitic diseases is a global issue. In countries around China, the problem of parasites remains severe. In the mainstream of globalization, we cannot preserve our dignity as a nobody. Therefore, we should pay attention to the prevalence of parasitic diseases in the countries around China and provide them with assistance to reduce the burden of foodborne parasitic diseases.
The limitations of this article are listed below. 1) The included literature was limited to studies published in English and Chinese, and the gray literature was not searched, which may lead to the loss of data from some areas in studies written in the local language or that has not been formally published. 2) Reports and research on parasitic infections and foodborne parasitic diseases are constantly being updated, and the cases and epidemiological data in this article have temporal validity.
With the progress of economic globalization and food diversification, foodborne parasites are becoming increasingly common in both developing and developed countries, endangering human health and imposing great challenges in public health, including China. From the current situation presented above, we concluded that the diverse eating habits, closely contact with animals, and urbanization are increasing the risk of foodborne parasitic diseases in China. Although effective drugs are available for many foodborne parasitic diseases, they remain an important public health issue that merits further attention, and the emphasis should be placed on raising the awareness of prevention, strengthening health education and food hygiene inspections, reinforcing the vigilance of medical staff, and comprehensively applying laboratory inspection methods for their prevention and control.
Conflict of interest statement
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
This work was supported by the Major Science and Technology Program of Hainan Province (Grant No. ZDKJ202003), Grants from the Key Research and Development Program of Hainan Province (Grant No. ZDYF2020120), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81572023 and 81371836), the Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 2019A1515011541), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2019B030316025), the National Parasitic Resources Center of China (Grant No. NPRC-2019-194-30), the Open Foundation of Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Hainan Medical University (Grant No. 2020TTM007), the 111 Project (Grant No. B12003), and the Teaching Reform Project of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2017001).
LS and QX were responsible for study selection and data extraction and drafted the manuscript. LS and ZL designed the study and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
| References|| |
Ryan UM, Feng Y, Xiao L. Biology of foodborne parasites
. 1st ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2015.
Torgerson PR, de Silva NR, Fèvre EM, Kasuga F, Rokni MB, Zhou XN, et al. The global burden of foodborne parasitic diseases: An update. Trends Parasitol
Shao D, Shi Z, Wei J, Ma Z. A brief review of foodborne zoonoses in China. Epidemiol Infect
Huang Y, Yu X. Endemic, trend, research and direction of food-borne parasitic diseases. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis
(6): 436-442. (in Chinese)
World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Multicriteria-based ranking for risk management of food-borne parasites. In: Microbiological risk assessment series No. 23
. Rome: WHO Press; 2014, p.8-9.
Zhou P, Chen N, Zhang RL, Lin RQ, Zhu XQ. Food-borne parasitic zoonoses in China: Perspective for control. Trends Parasitol
Cui Y, Gao J, Wang L, Yang S. Research progress in epidemiology of Metorchis orientalis
infection. Heilongjiang Anim Sci Veter Med
(15): 57-59. (in Chinese)
Pakharukova MY, Mordvinov VA. The liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus:
Biology, epidemiology and carcinogenic potential. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Hung NM, Madsen H, Fried B. Global status of fish-borne zoonotic trematodiasis in humans. Acta Parasitol
Toledo R, Esteban JG. An update on human echinostomiasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
Chai JY, Park JH, Han ET, Shin EH, Kim JL, Hong KS, et al. A nationwide survey of the prevalence of human Gymnophalloides seoi
infection on western and southern coastal islands in the Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol
Liu Q, Wei F, Liu W, Yang S, Zhang X. Paragonimiasis: An important food-borne zoonosis in China. Trends Parasitol
Doanh PN, Shinohara A, Horii Y, Habe S, Nawa Y, Le NT. Description of a new lung fluke species, Paragonimus vietnamensis
sp. nov. (Trematoda, Paragonimidae)
, found in northern Vietnam. Parasitol Res
Gilman RH, Mondal G, Maksud M, Alam K, Rutherford E, Gilman JB, et al. Endemic focus of Fasciolopsis buski
infection in Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg
Aksoy DY, Kerimoglu U, Oto A, Erguven S, Arslan S, Unal S, et al. Infection with Fasciola hepatica. Clin Microbiol Infect
Zhu X, Su C. Human parasitology
. 9th ed. Beijing: People’s Medical Publishing House; 2018. (in Chineses)
Diaz JH. Gnathostomiasis: An emerging infection of raw fish consumers in gnathostoma nematode-endemic and nonendemic countries. J Travel Med
Suzuki J, Murata R, Hosaka M, Araki J. Risk factors for human Anisakis
infection and association between the geographic origins of Scomber japonicus
and anisakid nematodes. Int J Food Microbiol
Barratt J, Chan D, Sandaradura I, Malik R, Spielman D, Lee R, et al. Angiostrongylus cantonensis:
A review of its distribution, molecular biology and clinical significance as a human pathogen. Parasitology
Mascarenhas CS, Müller G, de Macedo MRP, Henzel ABD, Robaldo RB, Corrêa F. The role of freshwater fish in the life cycle of Dioctophyme renale
in Southern Brazil. Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Rep
Camargo LM, de Souza Almeida, Aranha Camargo J, Vera LJ, di Tarique Crispim Barreto P, Tourinho EK. Capillariaisis (Trichurida, Trichinellidae, Capillaria hepatica)
in the Brazilian Amazon: Low pathogenicity, low infectivity and a novel mode of transmission. Parasit Vectors
Dold C, Holland CV. Ascaris and ascariasis. Microbes Infect
Chen J, Liu Q, Liu GH, Zheng WB, Hong SJ, Sugiyama H, et al. Toxocariasis: A silent threat with a progressive public health impact. Infect Dis Poverty
Rawla P, Sharma S. Enterobius vermicularis
(Pinworm). In: StatPearls
[Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
Xiaodan L, Zhensheng W, Ying H, Hongwei L, Jianqiu J, Peiru Z, et al. Gongylonema pulchrum
infection in the human oral cavity: A case report and literature review. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
Pullan RL, Smith JL, Jasrasaria R, Brooker SJ. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010. Parasit Vectors
Li CD, Yang HL, Wang Y. Capillaria hepatica
in China. World J Gastroenterol
Nosanchuk JS, Wade SE, Landolf M. Case report of and description of parasite in Mammomonogamus laryngeus
(human syngamosis) infection. J Clin Microbiol
do Carmo-Silva CF, Teles-Reis A, Silva-Soares RF, Rodrigues JGM, Lira MGS, Nogueira RA, et al. Spatial and seasonal distribution of Holochilus sciureus
with Schistosoma mansoni
infection in an endemic area for schistosomiasis in Brazil. Acta Parasitol
Durrani MI, Basit H, Blazar E. Diphyllobothrium latum
(Diphyllobothriasis). In: StatPearls
[Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
Zammarchi L, Strohmeyer M, Bartalesi F, Bruno E, Muñoz J, Buonfrate D, et al. Epidemiology and management of cysticercosis and Taenia solium
taeniasis in Europe, systematic review 1990-2011. PLoS One
Galán-Puchades MT, Fuentes MV. Lights and shadows of the Taenia asiatica
life cycle and pathogenicity. Trop Parasitol
Saratsis A, Sotiraki S, Braae UC, Devleesschauwer B, Dermauw V, Eichenberger RM, et al. Epidemiology of Taenia saginata
taeniosis/ cysticercosis: A systematic review of the distribution in the Middle East and North Africa. Parasit Vectors
Agudelo Higuita NI, Brunetti E, McCloskey C. Cystic echinococcosis. J Clin Microbiol
Eckert J, Deplazes P. Biological, epidemiological, and clinical aspects of echinococcosis, a zoonosis of increasing concern. Clin Microbiol Rev
Makarikov AA, Galbreath KE, Eckerlin RP, Hoberg EP. Discovery of Arostrilepis tapeworms
(Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) and new insights for parasite species diversity from Eastern North America. Parasitol Res
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parasites-Dipylidium infection (also known as dog and cat Flea Tapeworm). 2012
. [Online]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/dipylidium/
. [Accessed on 20 March 2020].
Sun X, Fang Q, Chen XZ, Hu SF, Xia H, Wang XM. Bertiella studeri
infection, China. Emerg Infect Dis
Olias P, Schade B, Mehlhorn H. Molecular pathology, taxonomy and epidemiology of Besnoitia
species (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae). Infect Genet Evol
Lidani KCF, Andrade FA, Bavia L, Damasceno FS, Beltrame MH, Messias-Reason IJ, et al. Chagas disease: From discovery to a worldwide health problem. Front Public Health
Adinehbeigi K, Ebrahimi M, Soltani Eini M, Sameie A. Prevalence of Haemoproteus columbae
(Apicomplexa: Haemoproteidae) and Trichomonas gallinae
(Metamonada: Trichomonadidae) infections among pigeons (Columba livia)
in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Arch Razi Inst
Leung AKC, Leung AAM, Wong AHC, Sergi CM, Kam JKM. Giardiasis: An overview. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov
Halonen SK, Weiss LM. Toxoplasmosis. Handb Clin Neurol
Kváč M, Havrdová N, Hlásková L, Daňková T, Kanděra J, Ježková J, et al. Cryptosporidium proliferans
n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae): Molecular and biological evidence of cryptic species within gastric Cryptosporidium
of mammals. PLoS One
Guiguet M, Furco A, Tattevin P, Costagliola D, Molina JM, French Hospital Database on HIV Clinical Epidemiology Group. HIV-associated Isospora belli
infection: Incidence and risk factors in the French Hospital Database on HIV. HIV Med
Schuster FL, Ramirez-Avila L. Current world status of Balantidium coli
. Clin Microbiol Rev
Ocaña-Losada C, Cuenca-Gómez JA, Cabezas-Fernández MT, Vázquez-Villegas J, Soriano-Pérez MJ. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of intestinal parasite infection by Blastocystis hominis. Rev Clin Esp
Zhang Q. Human Gongylonema pulchrum
infection in esophagus: A case report. Chin J Schisto Contr
(2): 217-218. (in Chinese)
Wang J, Tian L, Li X. Infant Dipylidium caninum
infection in Tenchong: A case report. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis
(1): 114-119. (in Chinese)
Yu P, Zhao Q, Meng Z, Ji Y. Rhabditis axei
found in urine routine examination: A case report. Chin J Schisto Contr
(5): 565-566. (in Chinese)
Mou L, Zhou X, Zhu R, Zhao K. Abdominal pain caused by whipworm infection: A case report. Chin J Modern Med
(22): 125-126. (in Chinese)
Pang R, Zhu Y, Wu J, Chen B. Liver hydatid disease misdiagnosed as liver cancer: A case report. J Hepatopancreatobiliary Surg
(11): 690-692, 700. (in Chinese)
Chen H, Xu N, Wang H, Liu Q. A case report of suspected Lophomomas blattarum
lung infection and literature review. Strait J Prev Med
(2): 108-110. (in Chinese)
Zhao H, Liang L, Wei S, Lu L, Liang Y, Lin Z, et al. A case of Trichostrongylus orientalis
combined with hookworm infection in Guangxi. Chin J New Clin Med
(4): 389-391. (in Chinese)
Zhao H, Lu L, Liang L, Wei S, Chen Z. A case of Blastocystis hominis
. Chin J New Clin Med
(11): 1147-1148. (in Chinese)
Wang B, Chen Q, Gu M, Yu Y, Ren C. Ingestion of Gnathostoma
infection in 1 case. Chin J Zoonoses
(1): 90-91. (in Chinese)
Zhong H, Liu W, Yin M, Wang H, Chen L. Analysis of Trichomonas hominis
infection in children and literature review. Lab Med Clin
(1): 142-144. (in Chinese)
Fang Z, Guan F, Wang T, Lu S, Liu W. An overview of 8 cases of several parasitic infections. Chin Trop Med
(1): 93-96. (in Chinese)
Ma G, Yang D. Misdiagnosis of fasciolopsiasis: A case report. Parasitoses Infect Dis
(4): 236-237. (in Chinese)
Diribel M, Hou Q, Gao J, Fatima M. One case of severe Taenia saginata
infection. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis
(4): 286-287. (in Chinese)
Wang R, Tang L, Zhou A. A case of fasciolasis hepatic in Zunyi City, Guizhou Province. Chin J Schisto Contr
(2): 179-183. (in Chinese)
Yin M, Ye X, Zhou Q, Xiao C. Analysis of three cases of pulmonary amoebiasis. Clin Misdiagn & Misther
(8): 3-5. (in Chinese)
Zhang H, Hua H. Report of the first clinical diagnosis of human eye Toxocara
infection in Jiangsu Province. J Trop Dis Parasitol
(2): 104-105. (in Chinese)
Li Y, Li L, Jiang D, Chen Z. One case report of Diphyllobothrium latum
by eating raw salmonella infection. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis
(6): 494. (in Chinese)
Zhou J, Ma H, Zeng R, Li X. One case of toxoplasmosis misdiagnosed as schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry
(3): 216. (in Chinese)
Chen Y, Wang R, Kong L, Chen S. A case repot sparganosis mansoni and literature review. J Trop Dis Parasitol
(1): 53-54. (in Chinese)
He S, Li Y, Zhen Y. A case of long-term misdiagnosis of enterobiasis. Clin Misdiagn & Misther
(6): 415. (in Chinese)
Qin Y, Zhao Y, Ren Y, Zheng L, Dai X, Li Y, et al. Anisakiasis in China: The first clinical case report. Foodborne Pathog Dis
Wang A. A case of human infection of Dioctophyma renale. J Pathogen Biol
(1): 4,15. (in Chinese)
Yang Y, Liu Y, He K, Lan C, Yang Y. Report of one case rexcreting 14 Taenia asiatica. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis
(3): 291. (in Chinese)
Wang X, Wang C, Zhao X, Yan Z. Blindness induced by misdiagnosis and mistreatment in meningitis type cerebral cysticercosis cellulosae. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis
(3): 191. (in Chinese)
Li Y, Cheng Y, Zhang Y, Chen B. A case of mixed infection with Heterophyid trematodes
and Chonorchis sinensis
and its missed diagnosis analysis. J Trop Dis Parasitol
(2): 124. (in Chinese)
Yang Y, Li S, Xu H, Xie Z, Wu Q, Shang S. A case of human infected with Rainllietina celebensis. J Pathogen Biol
(2): 2. (in Chinese)
Zhang Y, Chen S, Chang Z, Yu J, Li H. The first report of Bertiella studeri
infection in human body in China. Chin J Veter Parasitol
58-59. (in Chinese)
Lin X, Li H, Zhao X, Deng Y. Human Capillaria hepatica
infention: A case report. Chin J Parasitic Dis Contr
(4): 36-44. (in Chinese)
Huang L, Tang C, Liu W. A case of giardiasis confirmed by colonic mucosal biopsy. Chin J Dig Endosc
(4): 30. (in Chinese)
Chen B, Cheng Y, Zhang R, Yang W, Liu F, Lin J. Discovery of human infection with Echinostoma aegyptica. Chin J Zoonoses
(8): 717-718. (in Chinese)
Li Y, Peng X. Misdiagnosis of ascariasis: A case report. Chin J Parasitic Dis Contr
(3): 130. (in Chinese)
Wu F, Jin X, Mao F, Cui J. A case of Pseudanoplocephala crawfordi
infection. J Henan Med Univ
(2): 156. (in Chinese)
Li Y, He D, Fu Y. A case of acute granulocytic leukemia with Cystoisos belli
and Clonorchis sinensis
infection. Chin J Parasitic Dis Contr
(5): 62. (in Chinese)
Li D, Li Z, He A, Wang Y, Zhan X. First case of infection by Mammomonogamus gangguiensis. Acad J SUMS
(4): 246-249. (in Chinese)
Jiang L, Mei Z, Wang J. One case of trichinellosis misdiagnosed as rheumatism. Chin J Lab Diag
(3): 41. (in Chinese)
Wang Z, Du J, Wang X, Ma S. The first discover of human case of dracunculiasis in China. Chin J Zoonoses
(1): 16-17. (in Chinese)
Yan P, Chen G, Zhang M, Chen Z, Zeng R, Zheng X. An autopsy of death case caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Chin J Pathol
(2): 128. (in Chinese)
Li L, Sun H. A case report of hepatic alveococcosis. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis
278. (in Chinese)
Xu Z, Dang Y. A case report of Hymenolepiasis nana. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis
278. (in Chinese)
Lu J, Su Y, He L, Li J, Li X, Ren Y. Three cases of cryptosporidiosis in children in Wuzhi County, Henan Province. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis
72. (in Chinese)
Li X, Qi S. Nine cases report of Dientamoeba fragilis
infection. Chin J Postgrad Med
55. (in Chinese)
Li W, Zhou Z, Lian Z, Xu C. Clinical analysis and treatment of 55 cases of S. hominis
infection. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis
47-49. (in Chinese)
Kai X, Liu Y. A case report of Balantidium coli. Chin J Infect Dis
81-82. (in Chinese)
Chen Y, Zhou C, Zhu H, Huang J, Duan L, Zhu T, et al. National survey on the current status of important human parasitic diseases in China in 2015. Chin J Parasitol and Parasit Dis
(1): 5-16. (in Chinese)
Li T, He S, Zhao H, Zhao G, Zhu XQ. Major trends in human parasitic diseases in China. Trends Parasitol
Yu Y. Epidemiological investigation of clonorchiasis in Guangdong Shunde from 2014 to 2015
. Master’s thesis. Southern Medical University; 2016.
Wu W, Wang H, Wang Q, Zhou X, Wang L, Zheng C, et al. A nationwide sampling survey on echinococcosis in China during 2012-2016. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis
(1): 1-14. (in Chinese)
You X, Wu F. Retrospective investigation and analysis of human trichinosis outbreaks in Yunnan Province. J Trop Dis Parasitol
(2): 93-96, 101. (in Chinese)
Xing W, Lu Y. Analysis of infection and epidemic factors of Angiostrongylus cantonensis
in China from 1968 to 2017. Bull Dis Contr Prev
(6): 38-43. (in Chinese)
Wu X, Li M, Fan R, Wang X, Zhang W, Zhao P, et al. Comprehensive report of trichinosis cases from various places. Chin J Parasitol Parasit Dis
68-69. (in Chinese)
Wang J, Zheng X, Yin L, Guo Z, Qi H, Li X, et al. Epidemiological analysis of 141 patients with Angiostrongyliasis
in a hospital in Beijing in 2006. Chin J Epidemiol
27-29. (in Chinese)
Zhang Y, Dai D, Gong Z, Lin D, Yang Z. Present endemic status of paragonimiasis in Dandong city, Liaoning province, China. Chin J Parasit Dis Contr
52-54. (in Chinese)
Li S, Feng S. Anisakis larvae
detected in imported hairtail. Yunnan J Anim Sci Veter Med
43. (in Chinese)
Takeshi K. Woe sushi: Gastric anisakiasis. Lancet
Yu Y, Jia Z, Qi Y. Prevalence of food-borne parasites in foods and the state of quarantines/inspections to control those parasites. J Pathogen Biol
(11): 1042-1046. (in Chinese)
Zhang Q, Fu C, Zheng X, Zhou D, Zhang W, Liu H, et al. Seroepidemiological surveillance of toxoplasmosis in cats in Beijing city during 2014 to 2017. China Anim Health Inspection
(7): 5-9. (in Chinese)
Qiu H. Investigation on the prevalence of dog and cat zoonotic parasites and analysis of risk factors in Northeast China
. Master’s thesis. Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University; 2020.
Sun G. Urban paragonimiasis. J Xi'an Medical Univ
283-284. (in Chinese)
Beiromvand M, Panabad E, Rafiei A. Status of intestinal parasitic infections among rural and urban populations, southwestern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med
Wu Z, Huang Y, Song L. New challenge for human parasitic disease control in China: Food-borne parasitic disease control. J Trop Med
(1): 1-3. (in Chinese)
Delaluna JC, Flores MC, Belizario VY, Janairo JB, Sumalapao DP. Soil-transmitted helminth egg contamination from soil of indigenous communities in selected barangays in Tigaon, Camarines Sur, Philippines. Asian Pac J Trop Med
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]