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Table of Contents
LETTER TO EDITOR
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 8  |  Page : 378-380

Failure of space spraying to eliminate dengue virus-infected Aedes aegypti may explain failure to prevent secondary cases in Southern Thailand


1 Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand
2 Faculty of Medical Technology, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand

Date of Submission23-Mar-2021
Date of Decision24-Mar-2021
Date of Acceptance29-Mar-2021
Date of Web Publication23-Jul-2021

Correspondence Address:
Theerakamol Pengsakul
Faculty of Medical Technology, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla
Thailand
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Source of Support: This study was supported by the Program Management Unit for Human Resources & Institutional Development, Research and Innovation-CU (grant number B16F630071) and TSRI Fund (CU_ FRB640001_01_30_1), Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.321615

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How to cite this article:
Chumchuen K, Pengsakul T, McNeil EB, Nanakorn N, Chongsuvivatwong V. Failure of space spraying to eliminate dengue virus-infected Aedes aegypti may explain failure to prevent secondary cases in Southern Thailand. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2021;14:378-80

How to cite this URL:
Chumchuen K, Pengsakul T, McNeil EB, Nanakorn N, Chongsuvivatwong V. Failure of space spraying to eliminate dengue virus-infected Aedes aegypti may explain failure to prevent secondary cases in Southern Thailand. Asian Pac J Trop Med [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Dec 5];14:378-80. Available from: https://www.apjtm.org/text.asp?2021/14/8/378/321615

Dengue is a febrile disease caused by a member of the Flaviviridae family called dengue virus (DENV). DENV is primarily transmitted to humans by blood ingestion of Aedes (Ae.) aegypti[1],[2]. Space spraying is a vector control measure recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for eliminating vector mosquitos and preventing further infections in an epidemic setting[3]. Evidence of the effectiveness of space spraying in reducing vector mosquito populations and risk of contracting DENV is limited and inconclusive[4]. This study aimed to implement dengue virologic surveillance for assessing the effectiveness of space spraying in eliminating infected female Ae. aegypti over the course of spraying.

This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medicine (registration number: REC. 62-200-18-1) and the Animal Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Science (registration number: 2562-10-035), Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.

Adult Ae. aegypti samples were collected from households located within the targeted communities for space spraying in response to dengue cases in endemic areas in Songkhla, Thailand. The selected households consisted of index case households and surrounding households within the spraying area. Mosquito collection was conducted 5 times in each household (before, day of spraying, and 2, 4 and 6 days after spraying). Collected Ae. aegypti from each household on each collection day were placed into pools of 1 to 5 Ae. aegypti of the same sex for detection processes. RNA was extracted from the pooled samples, and were tested for DENV using a one-step real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

The main outcome variable is the number of infected Ae. aegypti pooled samples. We used stratified jitter plots to identify the changes, characteristics, and distributional pattern of Ae. aegypti pooled samples over the course of spraying. Fisher’s exact test or Chi-squared test was used to assess significant differences between/ among proportions, where appropriate. The level of significance in this study was set at P<0.05.

The distribution and characteristics of female and male Ae. aegypti pooled samples in 18 study houses are illustrated in [Figure 1]. Eight of 18 sampled households (44.44%), including one index case household, had at least 1 pool that consisted of at least 1 infected female Ae. aegypti from day 1 to day 7 after spraying. For male pools, the respective number was 9 of 18 households (50.00%). [Table 1] summarizes the number of Ae. aegypti pooled samples and DENV prevalence by sex and serotype. The prevalence of DENV-2 (9.69%) was higher than DENV-3 (1.18%). The association between the 2 sexes and 3 serotypes was tested using Fisher’s exact test. The P value was 0.424 indicating no evidence of an association between the sexes of Ae. aegypti and serotypes. Furthermore, the number of infected pooled samples in 5 collection days were 14, 4, 6, 10 and 12, while the total pooled samples were 90, 32, 80, 70 and 105. The was no association between the DENV prevalence and collection day, Chi-squared P value was 0.675.
Figure 1: Distribution and characteristics of Aedes aegypti pools in dengue endemic areas stratified by household. (A) Female; (B) Male.

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Table 1: DENV prevalence in Aedes aegypti pooled samples stratified by sex [n (%)].

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This study showed that the circulation of DENV still remained after the implementation of space spraying as nearly half of the sample households contained at least 1 pool of active female Ae. aegypti with at least 1 positive DENV infection. In addition, half of the households contained at least 1 pool of male Ae. aegypti with at least 1 positive DENV infection which was unexpected, as male Ae. aegypti does not feed on human blood. Although males do not contribute to the direct transmission of DENV, this finding indicates possible transovarial or venereal transmission of the disease[5],[6],[7],[8], which requires further investigation in order to determine the the underlying mechanism, and together with persistent presence of infected Ae. aegypti, these factors may be a contributing cause of secondary dengue cases after space spraying.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare there is no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgements

We thank the following people for their contribution to this paper. Mrs. Sarintip Muneesawang and staff from the Local Administrative Office for their cooperation and assistance; the locals of Bo Yang sub-district for allowing us to conduct this study; and the Faculty of Medical Technology for allowing us to use their laboratory.

Funding

This study was supported by the Program Management Unit for Human Resources & Institutional Development, Research and Innovation-CU (grant number B16F630071) and TSRI Fund (CU_ FRB640001_01_30_1).

Authors’ contributions

K.C., T.P. and V.C. conceptualized the study. K.C., T.P. and N.N. performed data collection. Both K.C. and E.B.M. performed data entry and analysis. K.C. prepared the original draft of the manuscript. T.P., V.C., E.B.M. and N.N. reviewed and edited the manuscript. All authors contributed to the final version of the manuscript. V.C. supervised the project.

 
  References Top

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Carrington LB, Simmons CP. Human to mosquito transmission of dengue viruses. Front Immunol 2014; 5. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00290.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
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Bäck AT, Lundkvist Å. Dengue viruses-an overview. Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2013; 3(1): 19839.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
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World Health Organization. Global strategy for dengue prevention and control, 2012-2020. World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Esu E, Lenhart A, Smith L, Horstick O. Effectiveness of peridomestic space spraying with insecticide on dengue transmission: Systematic review. TM & IH 2010; 15(5): 619-631.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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Tesh RB. Transovarial transmission of arboviruses in their invertebrate vectors. Curr Top Vector Res 1984; 2: 57-76.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
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Rosen L. Further observations on the mechanism of vertical transmission of Flaviviruses by Aedes mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1988; 39(1): 123-126.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
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Rosen L. Sexual transmission of dengue viruses by Aedes albopictus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1987; 37(2): 398-402.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
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Sánchez-Vargas I, Harrington LC, Doty JB, Black WC, Olson KE. Demonstration of efficient vertical and venereal transmission of dengue virus type-2 in a genetically diverse laboratory strain of Aedes aegypti. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018; 12(8): e0006754.  Back to cited text no. 8
    


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