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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 254-265

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever from the immunopathogenesis, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic perspective: A scoping review

Applied Virology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Hadi Esmaeili Gouvarchin Ghaleh
Applied Virology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Science, Tehran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.315899

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Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is responsible for widespread tick-borne zoonotic viral disease CCHF in African, Middle Eastern, Asian, and European countries. CCHFV can be spread to humans through tick bites or contact with infected animals or humans, and it often progresses from asymptomatic to severe/lethal illness, with fatality rates ranging from 10% to 40% in humans. Today, CCHF is growing into a significant public health concern due to its very high prevalence, severity of the condition, and lack of available vaccines and specific treatments. Recent research has been drawn towards a more accurate study of CCHFV characteristics, including the structure, genetic diversity, mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and immunopathogenesis, and clinical features. In addition, the use of animal models (mouse and non-human primates) and advanced diagnostic tools in recent years has resulted in a significant advance in CCHF related studies. In this context, we summarized the latest findings about CCHF research, its health complications, animal models, current diagnosis, vaccination, and CCHF treatments, and therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, we discussed existing deficiencies and problems in CCHFV analysis, as well as areas that still need to yield conclusive answers.

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