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META-ANALYSIS
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 486-504

Tick-borne pathogens in Iran: A meta-analysis


1 Health Research Center, LifeStyle Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
3 Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran; Rahyan Novin Danesh (RND) University, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran
4 Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Vector-borne Diseases Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Hasan Bakhshi
Vector-borne Diseases Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.329009

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Objective: Different studies have been performed on the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in different areas of Iran; however, as far as our knowledge, there is no regional meta-analysis available for consideration and estimation of tick species infected with different pathogens in Iran. Methods: In this review, among different databases, a total of 95 publications were included, and the infection of different tick species to different tick-borne pathogens was determined; furthermore, presence of pathogens (with 95% confidence intervals) in tick vectors was calculated separately for each province, using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2 (Biostat, USA). Results: Totally, among all 95 studies, 5 673 out of 33 521 investigated ticks were positive according to different detection methods. Overall estimated presence of pathogens in tick vectors in Iran was 8.6% (95% CI 7.0%-10.6%, P<0.001). Of all 46 species of ticks in 10 genera in Iran, 28 species in 9 genera, including Alveonasus, Argas, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes, Ornithodoros, and Rhipicephalus were infected with at least 20 pathogens in 10 genera including Aegyptianella, Anaplasma, Babesia, Borrelia, Brucella, Orthonairovirus [Crimean- Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV)], Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia and Theileria in 26 provinces of Iran. The presence of pathogens in ticks collected in western Iran was more than other regions. Hyalomma anatolicum (20.35%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (15.00%), and Rhipicephalus bursa (14.08%) were the most prevalent infected ticks for different pathogens. In addition, most literatures were related to CCHFV and Theileria/Babesia spp. Conclusions: Public health and veterinary professionals should be aware of diagnosing possible diseases or outbreaks in vertebrates.


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