Impact Factor 2021: 3.041 (@Clarivate Analytics)
5-Year Impact Factor: 2.776 (@Clarivate Analytics)
Impact Factor Rank: 10/24, Q2 (Tropical Medicine)
  • Users Online: 4954
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

Table of Contents
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-7

Perspectives and challenges of tropical medicinal herbs and modern drug discovery in the current scenario

1 Department of Advanced Science & Technology, NIET, Nims University Rajasthan, Jaipur-303121, India
2 Department of Applied Science, Indian Institute of Information Technology Allahabad, Allahabad-211012, India
3 Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur -208024, India

Date of Submission03-May-2018
Date of Decision16-Dec-2018
Date of Acceptance20-Dec-2018
Date of Web Publication23-Jan-2019

Correspondence Address:
Rajesh Kumar Kesharwani
Department of Advanced Science & Technology, NIET, Nims University Rajasthan, Jaipur-303121
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.250337

Rights and Permissions

Tropical diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis, account for a large number of deaths annually. Herbs are an excellent source of tropical medicines. Many advancements and discoveries have taken place in the field of drug discovery but still, a major population of tropical diseases relies on herbal traditional medicine. There are some challenges related to policy implementation, efficacy, resistance and toxicity of tropical medicines. There are many tropical diseases such as such as schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness, filariasis and chagas disease which are neglected because very few pharmaceutical companies have shown their interest in developing therapeutics against these diseases of poor people. There are many benefits associated with herbal medicine such as the cost of production, patient tolerance, large scale availability, efficacy, safety, potency, recyclability, and environment friendly. A large number of natural extracts such as curcumin, artemisinin, morphine, reserpine, and hypericin, are in use for treatment of different tropical diseases for a long time. The current review is to discuss the overview of tropical medicinal herbs, its scope and limitations in the modern drug discovery process.

Keywords: Herbs, Natural sources, Lead compounds, Drug discovery, Computational approaches

How to cite this article:
Kesharwani RK, Misra K, Singh DB. Perspectives and challenges of tropical medicinal herbs and modern drug discovery in the current scenario. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2019;12:1-7

How to cite this URL:
Kesharwani RK, Misra K, Singh DB. Perspectives and challenges of tropical medicinal herbs and modern drug discovery in the current scenario. Asian Pac J Trop Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2022 Dec 2];12:1-7. Available from:

  1. Introduction Top

1.1. Study of herbal drugs in the light of modern drug discovery

Natural products extracts are of paramount importance because of their therapeutic relevance and structural and chemical diversity. Literature survey shows that there are approximately 130 life-saving drugs which are phytochemicals isolated from different medicinal plants. Such life-saving drugs have been found in about 6% of the total available medicinal plants. Undoubtedly the vast world of global fauna and flora are to be explored for finding the core molecules based on which the probable cure can be found for several deadly diseases like cancer, AIDS and diabetes etc[1].

The study conducted by Cravotto et al. in 2010 surveyed commonly available 1 000 plant-derived products marketed in western countries and revealed that only 156 out of these products could succeed for clinical trial publications. Overall fifty products were reported for preclinical studies, and the remaining 12% of the products were found to be of no substantial importance for the study of their properties. The pieces of evidence suggested that five compounds out of the total obtained products were highly toxic and their use is forbidden. However, nine plants were found to be of clinical importance for use as therapeutics[2]. According to World Health Organization, about 75% of the world population rely on the use of such traditional medicinal system and plant-derived products are used prominently[3],[4]. Till date, many drugs with clinical importance having worst side effects are given in [Table 1]. The optimization of such drugs can be possible with the help of modern drug discovery approach to design their potential analogues/derivatives with lesser toxic/side effects.
Table 1: Potential drugs with their clinically known toxic/side effects[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13].

Click here to view

1.2. History of traditional medicine

Drug is a medicine or a substance which has a physiological effect when introduced into the human body. Medicine improves or restores health from illness through prevention, mitigation or complete treatment. Since ancient times, all the human societies have firm beliefs in the medicinal system that provides explanations for birth, diseases and their treatment and death[14]. Early records on ancient medicinal systems have incorporated plants (herbalism), animal parts and minerals to treat various diseases worldwide. Herbs are substances derived from natural plant resources, that were used for the treatment of various diseases and its history is as old as human civilization. From the previously documented literature, it has been clearly described that most of the medicinally active substances were identified in Egypt, Greece, China, and India. In China, the plant products were used in the form of crude extract since 5000 B.C. The oldest known script (Pen ts’ao) was written in around 2 700 BC by an emperor Shen-Nung which contained 365 drugs, one for each day of the year[3].

Ancient Indians worked meticulously on herbs which they came across and classified these into classes known as Gunas. Today the large population of India depends on Ayurveda ‘an ancient science of life’[15]. Ayurveda is based on two textbooks, Charaka Samhita, dealing with etiology, symptomatology, pathology, prognosis, and medical management of disease, and Sushruta Samhita dealing with surgical procedures (1000 years B.C.)[16].

In 1 800 AD, Fredrick Surterner first isolated morphine from opium plants and this gave the idea about natural product chemistry. In the modern times, many other similar developments took place viz. the use of cinchona bark extract (Cinchona officinalis) in the 17th century for the treatment of enteric fever; digitalis for the treatment cardiac problems and the use of coca tree leaves by Andean cultures to name a few. Later in 1860, cocaine was isolated as a chemical responsible for the local anesthetic activity. Traditionally pineapple juice was used by American Indians to reduce inflammation in wounds and other skin injuries. However, it was followed later on, by isolation of an enzyme from the fresh juice of pineapple that broke down proteins (bromelain) and was found to break down blood clots in 1891 etc. Several phytochemicals used previously in traditional medicine are now being recognized in modern clinical practice[17],[18]. Today a plethora of knowledge about therapeutics of medicinal plant products and its application has accumulated through either experiences or knowledge evolved and passed from generation to generation among tribal people. The crude extracts of plant products can be a starting material for the extraction, isolation or synthesis of conventional drugs. The introduction of first synthetic pharmaceutical product aspirin in 1897, a derivative of acetylsalicylic acid a plant-based drug used for the treatment for pain, inflammation, and fever, compelled human beings to believe in the natural wonders and their diverse floristic wealth[3],[19],[20],[21],[22]. For metabolic processes in plants, a large number of chemical compounds known as phytochemicals are formed which are further divided into three classes[23]: (1) Primary metabolites: sugars, lipids, and fats etc.; (2) Secondary metabolites: these are compounds frequently formed for defense or other specific purposes. Alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides and natural phenolic compounds etc.; (3) Some secondary metabolites are toxins, pigments, and pheromones which can be modified to make useful drugs. Traditional Knowledge Digital Library established in 2001 contains a few lakh medicinal formulations.

1.3. Limitations of traditional herbal medicine

It is estimated that about 7 500 plants are used traditionally in local health care system, mostly in rural and tribal villages of India, out of these, approximately 4 000 plants are either little known or unknown to the majority of the population. Classical and indigenous systems of medicine in India such as Ayurveda, Siddha, Tibetan, and Unani have till today information of only approximately 1 200 plants[19],[23],[24].

The preparation of a medicine in these above-mentioned systems is mostly based on plant extracts containing diverse types of chemical substances which act synergistically or in other words these crude drugs are complex mixtures of a large number of biologically active substances that are integrated to make crude drug function as a single agent. For the purpose of proper use of plant extract as a crude drug, the isolation of biologically active principles and the determination of their individual functional structures and pharmacological investigation have to be carried out[25].

In Ayurveda generally, crude plant extracts are used, which despite their potency have no scientific backing. Systemic scientific studies can dispel these apprehensions. Detailed toxicity studies in the light of modern findings can make these herbal preparations more acceptable to the western world. However, Ayurveda is not only restricted to herbalism but has wider applications. In Ayurveda heavy metals such as arsenic, mercury and lead are sometimes employed in extremely lower doses since these have more precise targets in the human system. Some such preparations exported from India to the U.S. have been shown to contain these metals beyond the permissible limits[26]. Due to several stringent restrictions imposed by U.S. Food and Drug Administration, there is a ban on the import of certain Ayurvedic preparations during the last few years[27].

In case the popular doubts prevalent regarding herbal drugs are dispelled by modern researches, these problems can be solved. Certain confusions like same popular names for herbal products from different origin, subtle differences in structures of products isolated from plants growing under different environmental conditions, variations in the methods of collection, extraction, processing and storage and lack of information regarding the toxicity of the products, have to be clarified through modern tools and techniques.

Modern drug discovery approaches reduce the risk of failure and toxicity and help in identification of compounds with the high rate of success during clinical trials. Advances in the methods of compound screening and lead optimization have sped up the process of drug discovery because both to identify the compounds with high affinity for the target as well to know the site and strategy of modification are very important.

  2. Computer aided drug designing (CADD) Top

The current scenario with the cracking of human genome sequence at the beginning of the present century opens up a new era in drug development processes and furnishing new gene products or pathways as new targets that were previously not discovered[27],[28]. The modern computer-aided drug discovery is one of the robust and money-saving approaches for the designing of novel drugs. In contrast, previous methods for the development of new drugs took a large number of human resources, money and also lots of time. It is very common to do high throughput screening of a large number of small molecule library against selected biological targets to get a potential lead for further modification accordingly by doing testing against cell lines and then in vivo testing for its efficacy[29]. Due to the involvement of many computation techniques researchers have been able to know the involvement of atoms of a ligand with the atoms of a receptor for its interactions and that can be used for the designing of future drugs.

In modern approach for drug discovery the identification of lead is done after virtual screening, lead optimization to increase the affinity, selectivity, efficacy/potency, oral bioavailability and, metabolic stability (to increase the half-life). The leads which fulfill the above-mentioned criteria are used further in drug development process and then finally go to clinical trials [Figure 1]. Currently, the pharmaceutical industry is changing rapidly as new diseases and targets are discovered, giving rise to the necessity of finding more specific drugs. Scientists are trying to go beyond all this as for personalized medicine. There is always need to develop novel potent drugs against many deadly diseases due to resistance development of pathogens[30],[31],[32]. Previously finding a drug candidate against particular disease was based on hit and trial methods and a large proportion of such drugs failed at the final phase of clinical trials, so the total cost to launch one drug for public use was about the 4 to 8 hundred million US dollars. But due to advancement and application of computers in our daily life, the process of drug designing is optimized with respect to time, cost, and human resources. The current cost is about the 2 to 4 hundred million US dollars to launch one drug in the U. S. The computational based drug designing and discovery techniques are aimed at the systematic study of the effect of small/drug like molecules on different targets and attempts to optimize their potency[33].
Figure 1: Modern drug discovery approach[15],[31],[32] (Reconstructed and modified).

Click here to view

2.1. Drug designing process

Till date many computational methods have been discovered and applied all over the world very efficiently. These methods include the use of different biologically important databases (PDB, ZINC etc), virtual screening via docking simulation, molecular modeling, quantitative structural activity relationship (QSAR), ADMET filtering, similarity searching, data mining, molecular dynamics, pharmacophore study, use of visualization tools, network analysis tools etc. to predict biological activity of new derivatives without wet lab testing[34]. The generation of data via in silico study is very large. The importance of QSAR was understood during 1960's. This resulted in the emergence of CADD. Lead molecules from different plants, animals or microorganisms, known for their medicinal properties by experience over the ages form the basis of such studies. Some anticancer drugs like paclitaxol, vincristine and vinblastine are such examples. Some drugs like sildenafil were a well-designed drug for clinical trials of cardiovascular diseases. Most of the drugs have been discovered by SAR. Rationale designing of drugs started only in 1980's and systematic screening was initiated in 1990's [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Flow diagram of CADD[32],[34] (reconstructed and modified).

Click here to view

In CADD, also known as computer-assisted molecular design, drugs can be designed computationally by using the following two strategies.

2.2. Ligand based drug designing

There are only two known bio-physical methods so far for structural determination of proteins, viz., nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystallography. The structures of most of the target proteins specifically membrane proteins is unknown due to the limitation in getting their X-ray crystallographic structures. In such cases, the homology modeling approach is adopted and studies are carried out using the probable model. A lead molecule or active ligand is found, which guides the drug design process. This approach is based on analysis using sets of biologically active ligands. Pharmacophore designing guides the approach. Phamacophoremodelisa set of points in space with certain specific properties and distances between them, which are responsible for binding of given set of ligands with the target. The classical concept of QSAR is helpful to a very great extent for designing analogs of known ligands. However, the 3D-QSAR has an additional advantage of considering the 3-D stereo structures of compounds and therefore is an improved method for predicting the pharmacological activity of different chemical compounds with greater precision[35].

2.3. Structure based drug designing (SBDD)

This approach uses multiple procedures prevalent in the rational drug design and pharmaceutical research. The main aim of SBDD is to identify active small molecules specifically peptides which are capable of site-specific binding at key positions of biologically relevant targets, eg. enzymes or receptors. The necessary condition is that the three-dimensional structures (3-D structures) of these moieties should be known[36]. The 3D structures of receptors/targets are downloaded from the protein database. Complete information regarding the 3-D structural configuration of these macromolecules is available in these databases since it is derived from X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Where such structural information is not available, homology modeling is resorted to[37].

2.4. Success story of CADD

The beginning of the present century started with cracking of the human genome which opened a pandora box for identification of molecular targets for various diseases which resulted in tremendous progress in the field of drug designing. The increasing number of successful applications of drug design has led to the discovery of new therapeutics. There are an enormous amount of ligand based drug designing and SBDD approaches that have been already in practice to derive more potent drug molecules. The first pioneer and unequivocal example of the application of structure-based drug design resulting in an approved drug are, dorzolamide the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, which was approved in 1995[36],[37],[38]. Another very important case study in the area of rational drug design is imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor which was designed specifically for the bcr-abl fusion protein and is substantially efficacious. Imatinib targets only cancerous cells by differentiating between normal and tumor cells which makes it better than other known drugs targeting all the dividing cells. Additional examples include atypical antipsychotics cimetidine, the prototype H2-receptor antagonist from which the later other members of the class were developed. Selective COX-2 inhibitor nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that reduce pain; enfuvirtide, a peptide HIV entry inhibitor; antiviral drug such as zanamivir, and, HIV Integrase inhibitor eg. isentress[39] are some more important examples.

2.5. Limitations of CADD

Computer-aided drug designing uses computational approaches for searching, analyzing, screening and optimizing the activity of compounds. The predictive accuracy of these approaches and tools depends on the significance of parameters used in predictions. In recent years, many new parameters related to ADMET and other problems came into existence and they should be incorporated in the tool to increase the accuracy of prediction. Improvement in software used for 3D structure visualization is also required for better understanding of receptor-ligand interaction which may further guide the desired changes in the ligand in order to achieve the goal of drug discovery. There also exists a possibility to include some other physiological parameters in molecular dynamics simulation for better understanding and dynamic mapping of changes occurring during the receptor-ligand interaction.

  3. Current status and future perspective Top

Neglected tropical diseases (NTD) are a group of 17 diseases transmitted by virus, protozoa, helminths and bacteria[40]. The drugs available are toxic, less efficacious and there are reports of resistance. Medicinal chemistry approaches such as molecular modelling, synthesis of novel series of molecules, biological activity evaluation and structure-activity relationships tools can guide us to design potential drug. NTD such as schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness filariasis and Chagas disease, devastate the lives of poor people's living in Africa, Asia and the Americas. Treatments for these diseases are not very effective and often highly toxic. Pharmaceutical companies have a limited commercial interest in developing therapeutics for these poor patient populations. The Sandler Centre for Drug Discovery at the University of California, San Francisco grant funding for designing of new therapeutics for treatment of several of NTDs. Cathepsin-like cysteine proteases that play a critical role in parasite biology of NTDs[41]. In Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease), the cysteine protease cruzain, a close homolog of human cathepsin L, expressed in all lifecycle stages and play important role in nutrient processing, immune evasion and differentiation. There is need to investigate new targets that are specific to the parasite or to the host–parasite interaction.

Major tropical infectious diseases, namely, malaria, tuberculosis, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis, account for more than 2.2 million deaths annually[42]. The application of computational technologies in drug discovery at the hit identification, hit-to-lead, and lead optimization stages can speed up the process of discovery and also reduces the risk of drug failure. Most drug discovery strategies rely on high-throughput screening of synthetic chemical libraries using phenotypic and target-based approaches[43]. Combinatorial chemistry libraries lack the structural diversity required to find entirely novel structure. Natural products have a unique chemical diversity that can serve as excellent templates for the synthesis of novel, biologically active molecules. Frequent appearance of chemo-resistance for tropical diseases is a big challenge which suggest the need of new drugs against these diseases. Metal compounds can serve as a new leads against malaria, leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis[44]. A few metal-based drugs are available in this therapeutic area, and others are in process of development. Identification of molecular targets for the disease can guide us in developing mechanism-based metallodrugs. The use of metal complexes as drug against tropical diseases appears as a very attractive treatment alternative[45]. A number of potential metal-based drugs are available for the treatment of tropical diseases such as trypanosomiasis, malaria, and leishmaniasis. New vectors (micro and nano-particles, mesoporous materials) can cross host or parasite natural barriers and can deliver the drug to the target site with a minimum dosage and less side effects[46].

The modern drug discovery process is mainly based on the exploration and selection of naturally occurring lead molecules on the basis of their well known medicinal applications and safety. Among the different herbal compounds ‘curcumin’, the yellow pigment of turmeric alone has been selected as a lead molecule based on its prolific therapeutic activity reported in literature against cancer and plethora of other illnesses[47].

From literature search it has been found that more than sixty-five hundred publications is available in PubMed, and approximately fourteen thousand articles have been documented in google scholar in last five years on curcumin, a molecule surpassing all others herbal molecules. The enormous amount of literature available on cancer alone in PubMed shows its importance and attention of the scientific community. Among the most prevalent cancers, the literature of breast cancer is highest compared to other diseases like AIDS and TB etc. This shows how it affects the women population worldwide (although reported in men also) and appeared as a major cause of women mortality. Breast cancer is a very lethal disease because of its heterogeneity in terms of morphology, biological features, clinical characteristics and different types of prognostic and therapeutic implications[48],[49].

Highly advanced and meticulous research works are going worldwide on various therapeutic applications of curcumin in multiple myeloma, lowering of blood cholesterol, cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, prevention of low-density lipoprotein oxidation, myelodysplastic syndromes, suppression of symptoms associated with type II diabetes, colon cancer, psoriasis, HIV, protection from pulmonary toxicity, fibrosis and Alzheimer's disease[50],[51],[52]. The role of different herbs, their composition and applications are given in [Table 2].
Table 2: Composition and applications of herbal products[57],[58].

Click here to view

Apart from these clinical studies, it is also suggested that curcumin has antioxidant, amyloidal, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, antimalarial, and various other therapeutic properties[70],[71]. Curcumin having a number of different targets, however, it lacks optimal pharmacokinetic profile which is a very big drawback for considering it as a drug so far[72].

The natural herbs are the excellent source of lead for drug discovery. Many metabolites from different parts of the herbal plant have not been screened for their biological activity. The use of computational methods has reduced the cost, time, labor and risk of failure in drug discovery. But, still, the possibility for the improvements in the accuracy of prediction and analysis tools exists. In future, new approaches for drug discovery from the herbal substance may come into existence, which may be boon for the people suffering from the complex and incurable diseases.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest

  References Top

Kroemer G, Zitvogel L. Cancer immunotherapy in 2017: The breakthrough of the microbiota. Nat Rev Immunol 2018; 18(2): 87-88.  Back to cited text no. 1
Bokadia GS, Priya J, Ariga P. A systematic review on cancer therapy in ayurveda. J Pharm Sci Res 2018; 10(1): 211-223.  Back to cited text no. 2
Mukherjee PK, Harwansh RK, Bahadur S, Banerjee S, Kar A. Evidence-based validation of Indian traditional medicine: way forward. From Ayurveda to Chinese medicine. World J Tradit Chin Med 2016; 2(1): 48-61.  Back to cited text no. 3
Pan SY, Litscher G, Gao SH, Zhou SF, Yu ZL, Chen HQ, Zhang SF, Tang MK, Sun JN, Ko KM. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014; Article ID: 525340.  Back to cited text no. 4
Sultana J, Cutroneo P, Trifirò G. Clinical and economic burden of adverse drug reactions. J Pharmacol Pharmacother 2013; 4(Suppl 1): S73-S77.  Back to cited text no. 5
Wade M. Medication-related visual hallucinations: what you need to know. EyeNet Mag 2015[Online]. Available from: https://www.aao. org/eyenet/article/medication -related-visual-hallucinations-what-you-. [Accessed on 10 April 2018].  Back to cited text no. 6
UCSF Medical Center. Drugs reported to cause priapism. Available from: priapism/. [Accessed on January 30, 2016].  Back to cited text no. 7
Hedna K, Sundell KA, Hamidi A, Skoog I, Gustavsson S, Waern M. Antidepressants and suicidal behaviour in late life: a prospective population-based study of use patterns in new users aged 75 and above. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2018; 74(2): 201-218.  Back to cited text no. 8
Ho GP, Gamaldo CE, Gulyani S, Salas RE. Impulsive behaviors: definition, prevalence, neurobiology, and management. In: Willis Ekbom Disease: Restless legs syndrome. New York: Springer; 2017, p. 215-227.  Back to cited text no. 9
Rehmus W. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)[Online]. Available from: https://www.merckmanuals. com/home/skin-disorders/hypersensitivity-and-inflammatory-skin-disorders/stevens-johnson-syndrome-sjs-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysisten. [Accessed on January 28, 2016].  Back to cited text no. 10
Medline Plus: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Birth defects [Online]. Available from: [Accessed on January 28, 2016].  Back to cited text no. 11
Yan H, Xie H, Ying Y, Li J, Wang X, Xu X, et al. Pioglitazone use in patients with diabetes and risk of bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Manag Res 2018; 10: 1627-1638.  Back to cited text no. 12
Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, Cushman M, Das SR, Deo R, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2017 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2017; 7; 135(10): e146.  Back to cited text no. 13
Bokadia GS, Priya J, Ariga P. A systematic review on cancer therapy in ayurveda. J Pharm Sci Res 2018; 10(1): 211-223.  Back to cited text no. 14
Muegge I, Bergner A, Kriegl JM. Computer-aided drug design at Boehringer Ingelheim. J Comput Aided Mol Des 2017; 31(3): 275-285.  Back to cited text no. 15
Blake CF. Knowing practice: the clinical encounter of Chinese Medicine. Judith Farquhar. Am Anthropol 1995; 97(2): 404-405.  Back to cited text no. 16
Senthilkumar A, Karuvantevida N, Rastrelli L, Kurup SS, Cheruth AJ. Traditional uses, pharmacological efficacy, and phytochemistry of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori.-a review. Front Pharmacol 2018; 9: 465.  Back to cited text no. 17
Jamshidi-Kia F, Lorigooini Z, Amini-Khoei H. Medicinal plants: past history and future perspective. J HerbMed Pharmacol 2018; 1: 1-7.  Back to cited text no. 18
Sharma HS, Sharma HI, Sharma HA. Sushruta-samhit A-A critical review part 1: Historical glimpse. Ayu 2012; 33(2): 167-173.  Back to cited text no. 19
Ramli AN, Aznan TN, Illias RM. Bromelain: from production to commercialisation. J Sci Food Agric 2017; 97(5): 1386-1395.  Back to cited text no. 20
Buenz EJ, Verpoorte R, Bauer BA. The ethnopharmacologic contribution to bioprospecting natural products. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2018; 58: 509-530.  Back to cited text no. 21
Chandra P, Sharma V. Strategic marketing prospects for developing sustainable medicinal and aromatic plants businesses in the Indian Himalayan region. Small-scale Forest 2018; 1: 1-9.  Back to cited text no. 22
Smulyan H. The beat goes on: the story of five ageless cardiac drugs. Am J Med Sci 2018; 356(5): 441-450.  Back to cited text no. 23
Alqahtani Z, Jamali F. Clinical outcomes of aspirin interaction with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: A systematic review. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018; 21: 48s-73s.  Back to cited text no. 24
Ciurzy ska A, Cichowska J, Kowalska H, Czajkowska K, Lenart A. Osmotic dehydration of Braeburn variety apples in the production of sustainable food products. Int Agrophys 2018; 32(1): 141-146.  Back to cited text no. 25
Clemensen AK, Provenza FD, Lee ST, Gardner DR, Rottinghaus GE, Villalba JJ. Plant secondary metabolites in alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, reed canarygrass, and tall fescue unaffected by two different nitrogen sources. Crop Sci 2017; 57(2): 964-970.  Back to cited text no. 26
Byeon JC, Ahn JB, Jang WS, Lee SE, Choi JS, Park JS. Recent formulation approaches to oral delivery of herbal medicines. J Pharm Invest 2018; 1: 1-10.  Back to cited text no. 27
Hossain MM, Nahar S, Choudhury TR, Shahriar M, Uddin N, Islam AF, et al. Studies of heavy metal contents and microbial profile in selected pediatric oral liquid preparations available in Bangladesh. Br J Pharm Res 2018; 21(4): 1-15.  Back to cited text no. 28
Islam MN. Chinese and Indian medicine today: branding Asia. Singapore: Springer; 2017;  Back to cited text no. 29
Kapoor LD. Handbook of Ayurvedic medicinal plants: herbal reference library. India: Routledge; 2017.  Back to cited text no. 30
Congreve M, Andrews S. Perspective in medicinal chemistry: structure-based drug design. Curr Top Med Chem 2017; 17(2): 93-104.  Back to cited text no. 31
Fons N. Focus: drug development: textbook of drug design and discovery. Yale J Biol Med 2017; 90(1): 160.  Back to cited text no. 32
Wang R, GaoY, Lai L. LigBuilder: A multi-purpose program for structure-based drug design. J Mol Model 2000; 6(7-8): 498-516.  Back to cited text no. 33
Sliwoski G, Kothiwale S, Meiler J, Lowe EW. Computational methods in drug discovery. Pharmacol Rev 2014; 66(1): 3334-3395.  Back to cited text no. 34
Fjell CD, Hiss JA, Hancock RE, Schneider G. Designing antimicrobial peptides: form follows function. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2012; 11(1): 37.  Back to cited text no. 35
Kooistra AJ, Leurs R, De Esch IJ, de Graaf C. Structure-based prediction of G-protein-coupled receptor ligand function: a β-adrenoceptor case study. J Chem Inf Model 2015; 55(5): 1045-1061.  Back to cited text no. 36
Huang SY, Grinter SZ, Zou X. Scoring functions and their evaluation methods for protein–ligand docking: recent advances and future directions. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2010; 12(40): 12899-12908.  Back to cited text no. 37
Liu J, Wang R. Classification of current scoring functions. J Chem Inf Model 2015; 55(3): 475-482.  Back to cited text no. 38
Schmidt T, Bergner A, Schwede T. Modelling three-dimensional protein structures for applications in drug design. Drug Discov Today 2014; 19(7): 890-897.  Back to cited text no. 39
Giarolla J, Ferreira EI. Drug design for neglected disease in Brazil. Mini Rev Med Chem 2015; 15(3): 220-242.  Back to cited text no. 40
Robertson SA, Renslo AR. Drug discovery for neglected tropical diseases at the Sandler Center. Future Med Chem 2011; 3(10), 1279-1288.  Back to cited text no. 41
Njogu PM, Guantai EM, Pavadai E, Chibale K. Computer-aided drug discovery approaches against the tropical infectious diseases malaria, tuberculosis, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis. ACS Infect Dis 2016; 2(1): 8-31.  Back to cited text no. 42
Annang F, Pérez-Moreno G, García-Hernández R, Cordon-Obras C, Martín J, Tormo JR, et al. High-throughput screening platform for natural product-based drug discovery against 3 neglected tropical diseases: human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease. J Biomol Screen 2015; 20(1): 82-91.  Back to cited text no. 43
Navarro M, Gabbiani C, Messori L, Gambino D. Metal-based drugs for malaria, trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis: recent achievements and perspectives. Drug Discov Today 2010; 15(23-24): 1070-1078.  Back to cited text no. 44
Sánchez-Delgado RA, Anzellotti A. Metal complexes as chemotherapeutic agents against tropical diseases: trypanosomiasis, malaria and leishmaniasis. Mini Rev Med Chem 2004; 4(1): 23-30.  Back to cited text no. 45
Zucca M, Savoia D. Current developments in the therapy of protozoan infections. The Open Med Chem J 2011; 5: 4-10.  Back to cited text no. 46
Morris GM, Huey R, Lindstrom W, Sanner MF, Belew RK, Goodsell DS, et al. Autodock4 and AutoDockTools4: automated docking with selective receptor flexiblity. J Comput Chem 2009; 16: 2785-2791.  Back to cited text no. 47
Marotti JD, de Abreu FB, Wells WA, Tsongalis GJ. Triple-negative breast cancer: next-generation sequencing for target identification. Am J Pathol 2017; 187(10): 2133-2138.  Back to cited text no. 48
Sinn HP, Kreipe H. A brief overview of the WHO classification of breast tumors. Breast Care 2013; 8(2): 149-154.  Back to cited text no. 49
Ferri M, Ranucci E, Romagnoli P, Giaccone V. Antimicrobial resistance: a global emerging threat to public health systems. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2017; 57(13): 2857-2876.  Back to cited text no. 50
Aziz RK, Khalifa MM, Sharaf RR. Contaminated water as a source of Helicobacter pylori infection: a review. J Adv Res 2015; 6(4): 539-547.  Back to cited text no. 51
Aicardo A, Mastrogiovanni M, Cassina A, Radi R. Propagation of free-radical reactions in concentrated protein solutions. Free Radic Res 2018; 52(2): 159-170.  Back to cited text no. 52
Tabassum N, Hamdani M. Plants used to treat skin diseases. Pharmacogn Rev 201; 8(15): 52–60.  Back to cited text no. 53
Hisano M, Bruschini H, Nicodemo AC, Srougi M. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention. Clinics 2012; 67(6): 661-668.  Back to cited text no. 54
Bent S, Padula A, Moore D, Patterson M, Mehling W. Valerian for sleep: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The American journal of medicine. 2006; 119(12): 1005-1012.  Back to cited text no. 55
Sletvold H, Stiles TC, Landrø NI. Information processing in primary fibromyalgia, major depression and healthy controls. J Rheumatol 1995; 22(1): 137-142.  Back to cited text no. 56
Saini AS, Taliyan R, Sharma PL. Protective effect and mechanism of Ginkgo biloba extract-EGb 761 on STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats. Pharmacogn Mag 2014; 10(38): 172-180.  Back to cited text no. 57
Rand AL, Asbell PA. Current opinion in ophthalmology nutritional supplements for dry eye syndrome. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2011; 22(4): 279-287.  Back to cited text no. 58
Kesharwani RK, Singh DB, Singh DV, Misra K. Computational study of curcumin analogues by targeting DNA topoisomerase II: A structure-based drug designing approach. Netw Model Anal Health Inform Bioinforma 2018; 7: 15.  Back to cited text no. 59
Grøntved A, Brask T, Kambskard J, Hentzer E. Ginger root against seasickness: A conctrolled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngol 1988 105(1-2): 45-49.  Back to cited text no. 60
Haddad P, Amouzgar–Hashemi F, Samsami S, Chinichian S, Oghabian MA. Aloe vera for prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis: A self-controlled clinical trial. Curr Oncol 2013; 20(4):e345.  Back to cited text no. 61
Iranshahy M, Iranshahi M. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of asafoetida (Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin)—A review. J Ethnopharmacol 2011; 134(1):1-10.  Back to cited text no. 62
Padmaja V, Rahaman A, Kumari KS, Kumari GS. Stability indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of reserpine, dihydralazine sulphate and hydrochlorothiazide in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Int J Chemtech Res 2018; 11(03): 192-209.  Back to cited text no. 63
Sreebny LM, Schwartz SS. A reference guide to drugs and dry mouth. Gerodontology 1986; 5(2): 75-99.  Back to cited text no. 64
Hodge G, Hodge S, Han P. Allium sativum (garlic) suppresses leukocyte inflammatory cytokine production in vitro: potential therapeutic use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Cytometry: Cytometry A 2002; 48(4): 209-215.  Back to cited text no. 65
Ebadi M. Pharmacodynamic basis of herbal medicine. USA: CRC press; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 66
Abenavoli L, Izzo AA, Mili N, Cicala C, Santini A, Capasso R. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum): A concise overview on its chemistry, pharmacological, and nutraceutical uses in liver diseases. Phytother Res 2018; 32(11): 2202-2213.  Back to cited text no. 67
Fagelman E, Lowe FC. Saw palmetto berry as a treatment for BPH. Rev Urol 2001; 3(3): 134–138.  Back to cited text no. 68
Ng QX, Venkatanarayanan N, Ho CY. Clinical use of Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) in depression: A meta-analysis. J Affect Disord 2017; 210: 211-221.  Back to cited text no. 69
Kesharwani RK, Srivastava V, Singh P, Rizvi SI, Adeppa K, Misra K. A novel approach for overcoming drug resistance in breast cancer chemotherapy by targeting new synthetic curcumin analogues against aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 β (GSK-3β). Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2015; 176(7): 1996-2017.  Back to cited text no. 70
Kesharwani RK, Misra K. Prediction of binding site for Curcuminoids at human Topoisomerase II protein; an in silico approach. Curr Sci 2011; 101(8): 1060-1064.  Back to cited text no. 71
Mirzaei H, Shakeri A, Rashidi B, Jalili A, Banikazemi Z, Sahebkar A. Phytosomal curcumin: a review of pharmacokinetic, experimental and clinical studies. Biomed Pharmacother 2017; 85: 102-112.  Back to cited text no. 72


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Phytoconstituents and Pharmacological Activities of Indian Camphorweed (Pluchea indica): A Multi-Potential Medicinal Plant of Nutritional and Ethnomedicinal Importance
Sabrin R. M. Ibrahim, Alaa A. Bagalagel, Reem M. Diri, Ahmad O. Noor, Hussain T. Bakhsh, Gamal A. Mohamed
Molecules. 2022; 27(8): 2383
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Garcinol from Garcinia indica inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H
Angela Corona,Sebastian Seibt,David Schaller,Rainer Schobert,Andrea Volkamer,Bernhard Biersack,Enzo Tramontano
Archiv der Pharmazie. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Activity of Fluorinated Curcuminoids against Leishmania major and Toxoplasma gondii Parasites
Tariq A. Khan,Waleed S. Koko,Ibrahim S. Al Nasr,Rainer Schobert,Bernhard Biersack
Chemistry & Biodiversity. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 p-Trifluoromethyl- and p-pentafluorothio-substituted curcuminoids of the 2,6-di[(E)-benzylidene)]cycloalkanone type: Syntheses and activities against Leishmania major and Toxoplasma gondii parasites
Ibrahim S. Al Nasr,Riadh Hanachi,Ridha B. Said,Seyfeddine Rahali,Bahoueddine Tangour,Siddig I. Abdelwahab,Abdullah Farasani,Manal M. E. Taha,Anil Bidwai,Waleed S. Koko,Tariq A. Khan,Rainer Schobert,Bernhard Biersack
Bioorganic Chemistry. 2021; 114: 105099
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 New Pyrano-4 H -benzo[ g ]chromene-5,10-diones with Antiparasitic and Antioxidant Activities
Ibrahim S. Al Nasr,Jana Jentzsch,Amin Shaikh,Priti Singh Shuveksh,Waleed S. Koko,Tariq A. Khan,Khursheed Ahmed,Rainer Schobert,Klaus Ersfeld,Bernhard Biersack
Chemistry & Biodiversity. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  2. Computer aide...3. Current statu...
  In this article
1. Introduction
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded574    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 5    

Recommend this journal