Impact Factor 2021: 3.041 (@Clarivate Analytics)
5-Year Impact Factor: 2.776 (@Clarivate Analytics)
Impact Factor Rank: 10/24, Q2 (Tropical Medicine)
  • Users Online: 801
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

Table of Contents
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 485-498

Phytopharmacological potential of the natural gift Moringa oleifera Lam and its therapeutic application: An overview

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University College of Engineering (BIT Campus), Anna University, Tiruchirappalli, 620 024, India

Date of Submission22-Dec-2018
Date of Decision26-Sep-2019
Date of Acceptance18-Oct-2019
Date of Web Publication26-Sep-2019

Correspondence Address:
Appavoo Umamaheswari
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University College of Engineering (BIT Campus), Anna University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.271288

Rights and Permissions

Traditionally, medicinal plants of family Moringaceae have been well-recognized due to their multipurpose utilization in various fields such as treatment of several diseases for they have a broad range of pharmacological activities, in wastewater treatment as well as food source. Fractionation of this medicinal plants and its bioactivity study discloses the presence of several phytoconstituents and secondary metabolites like terpenes, flavonoids, steroids, phenolic compounds, tannins, carohydrates, flavonoids, vitamins and minerals. The results of bioactivity study results revealed that different extracts such as aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic of Moringa oleifera showed notable therapeutic activities. Our present review explore and focus on the phytochemical composition and various pharmacological activities like immunomodulator, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, antiepileptic, cardioprotective, lipid lowering, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, anti-nephrotoxicity and anti-microbial activities to arouse public consciousness about the nutritional and medicinal value of this “miracle tree - Moringa oleifera” in favor of humanity.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Phytoconstituents, Pharmacological activity

How to cite this article:
Lakshmana Prabu S, Umamaheswari A, Puratchikody A. Phytopharmacological potential of the natural gift Moringa oleifera Lam and its therapeutic application: An overview. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2019;12:485-98

How to cite this URL:
Lakshmana Prabu S, Umamaheswari A, Puratchikody A. Phytopharmacological potential of the natural gift Moringa oleifera Lam and its therapeutic application: An overview. Asian Pac J Trop Med [serial online] 2019 [cited 2022 Dec 7];12:485-98. Available from:

  1. Introduction Top

For centuries, medicinal plants have been used all over the world to treat many diseases to enhance physical and spiritual wellbeing. Herbal medicines were the only choice available in ancient times, but these are replaced by new synthetic drugs with the development of science. In the last few decades, in global perspective, there has been a shift from synthetic to herbal medicine throughout the developed and developing countries. It can be assumed to say “Return to Nature” with home remedies due to the side effects or long term health hazards of allopathic medicines.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that approximately, 75%-80% of the world’s population utilized herbal plant materials as traditional medicines for their primary health care need[1]. Ayurveda and Siddha are the holistic traditional systems of medicine practiced in India and are considered to be safe with fewer side effects and cost effective[2]. Among the various medicinal plants, Moringa (M.) oleifera which belongs to the family of Moringaceae is one of the plants which have its customary use in most of the disease management. M. oleifera is native to the sub- Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan, now it is cultivated all over the world[3],[4]. Moringa is the taxon name which is originated from muringa or murunggi from Malayalam and Tamil respectively. Thirteen species such as M. oleifera, M. borziana, M. rivae, M. peregrine, M. concanensis, M. longituba, M. hildebrandtii, M. arborea, M. pygmaea, M. ovalifolia, M. drouhardii, M. stenopetala and M. ruspoliana are reported so far in the genus of Moringa among which M. oleifera is most known for its rich nutrient. Moringa has been used by ancient kings and queens since 150 B.C. in their diet for healthy skin and mental alertness[5],[6]. The plant, M. oleifera have high biotechnological potential due to its high content of minerals, vitamins, proteins, lipids, secondary metabolites and other various phytochemicals like sterols, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, alkaloids anthraquinones, carbohydrates and reducing sugar along with anti-cancerous agents. It contains 36 anti-inflammatory compounds, more than 90 recognized nutrients and 46 antioxidants. Scientific report states that M. oleifera consists of 539 bio-chemical activities which are much more beneficial to human being[7],[8]. Leaves of this plant contain all the essential amino acids which are very much useful to human being. Since 1998, WHO has promoted Moringa as an alternative to imported food supplies to treat malnutrition, and hence so it can be called as “Mother’s Best Friend”[7],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13].

1.1. Botanical description

M. oleifera is a little, agile, quickly developing, deciduous tree with sparse foliage of height 10 m – 12 m (32 ft– 40 ft). Bole is abnormal and frequently forked from the base. Bark is smooth, dull dim in shading and pale yellow. Twigs and shoots are short yet bristly hairy. Crown is wide open typically umbrella shaped and usually a single stem with soft wood and often deep rooted.

Leaves are alternate, large (up to about 90 cm long) and oppositely pinnae dispersed around 5 cm separated up the focal stalk, with leaflets in inverse sets, with a marginally larger terminal leaflet. Leaflets are hunter green above and pale on the under surface. It has variable size and shape, but regularly adjusted elliptic and 2.5 cm long.

Flowers are flourished all throughout the year in free axillary panicles up to 15 cm long. Individual flower stalks are up to 12 mm long and very slender. Each flower has five finely hairy pale green sepals which are 12 mm long and five white uneven petals and little longer than the sepals. There are five stamens with anthers and five without anthers and its style is slender. Flowers are usually very sweet in fragrance.

Fruits are large and distinguishing up to 12 mm broad and 90 cm long, slightly restrained at intervals, gradually tapering to a point with two grooves on each face. It splits along each angle to expose the rows with three papery wings of rounded blackish oily seeds[7],[14],[15].

1.2. Phytoconstituents

M. oleifera contains rich source of tannins, phenolics, steroids, flavonoids and terpenes. It also contains various nutraceuticals like dietary fiber, carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins (riboflavin, thiamine, pantothenic acid, niacin, folate, vitamic C, provitamin A and vitamin K) and minerals (iron, calcium, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and zinc)[9],[14]. Apart from these, there are Glycosides-carbamate, isothiocyanate, thiocarbamate, oestrogenic substances, ascorbic acid, β-sitosterol, iron, phosphorus, calcium, copper, vitamin A, B, C, α-tocopherol, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, folic acid, pyridoxine, β-carotene, proteins, essential amino acids – methionine, cystine, tryptophan and lysine novel bioactive nitrile glycosides- niaziridin and niazirin[7],[8],[9],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21]. Phytoconstitutents of the different parts of the M. oleifera are given in [Table 1], [Table 2] and [Table 3][8],[9],[12],[14],[16]. Structures of some phytoconstitutents of M. oleifera are shown in [Figure 1].
Table 1: Phytoconstituents in different parts of Moringa oleifera[8],[9],[12],[14],[16].

Click here to view
Table 2: Phytoconstitutents/Nutrients value of different parts of Moringa oleifera[8],[9],[12],[14],[16].

Click here to view
Table 3: Composition of amino acids in Moringa oleifera[14].

Click here to view
Figure 1: Structures of some phytoconstitutents of Moringa oleifera.

Click here to view

  2. Moringa oleifera and its pharmacological activities Top

2.1. Immunomodulator

Recently, phytoconstituents from M. oleifera is utilized for immunomodulatory treatment Nfambi et al., investigated the immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera in Wistar albino rats at 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg body weight. M. oleifera has shown significant immunostimulatory effect on both the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems in the Wistar albino rats. Wistar albino rats were immunosuppressed by cyclophosphamide at 200 mg/kg body weight. Dose of 1 000 mg/kg body weight showed an increment in lymphocyte, White blood cells and neutrophil counts when compared with the positive control, Levamisole hydrochloride BP 40 mg syrup. Increment in mean hemagglutination antibody titre was observed in sheep red blood cells in a dose-dependent manner. The dose dependent increment in the heamatological parameters may be due to the presence of different micro and macronutrients present in the leaf extract[22]. Gupta et al., studied the immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic (50%) leaf extract of M. oleifera in different dose levels such as 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg in mice model using cyclophosphamide at 30 mg/kg as immunosuppressant. Hematological parameters like white blood cell, red blood cell, hemoglobin, percent neutrophils and organ weight were estimated. The result revealed that M. oleifera leaf extract significantly reduced the immunosuppression, and increased hematological parameters and organ weight in a dose-dependent manner. The reason for immunomodulatory effect may be the restore of immune cells by alleviating the myelosupression and subsequent leucopenia induced by cyclophosphamide[23]. Immunomodulatory effect of M. oleifera leaves of different extract viz. petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol were assessed in different dose levels like 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight in Wistar albino rats. Parameters such as humoral antibody titre, delayed type hypersensitivity, T cell population tests and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression were assessed and compared with standard, Levamisole 50 mg/kg body weight. Among the three extracts, methanol extract showed very good immunomodulatory activity by restoring the hematological parameters and humoral antibody of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression through stimulation of both cellular and humoral immunity[24]. Deshmukh et al., examined the immunomodulatory effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera in albino rats. The results observed have shown that aqueous and ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera have immunomodulatory effect by increasing the humoral antibody, delayed type hypersensitivity, and phagocytic index[25]. Sharma et al., investigated the ethanolic extract of M. oleifera root for its immunomodulatory effect at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight in Wistar albino rats. The investigational results concluded that ethanolic root extract of M. oleifera possess immunomodulatory effect by increasing the haemagglutination antibody titre, carbon clearance rate, phagocytosis and prevented the myelosuppression which may be due to saponins and flavonoids[26]. Furthermore, research results showed that M. oleifera leaf extract have immunomodulatory effects[27],[28],[29],[30]. The results suggested that phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, polyphenols, saponins, macronutrients and micronutrients which are widely present in the different parts of this plant have the ability to induce immunomodulatory effect by both cellular and humoral immunity.

2.2. Anti-diabetic

Soliman investigated the anti-diabetic effect of ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats at a dose of 50 mg/ kg body weight. The study has shown that there was significant (P<0.05) reduction in the blood glucose level in rats treated with M. oleifera[31]. Adeeyo et al., demonstrated the antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves on Streptozotocin -induced diabetic male rats. Study has shown that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves normalized the insulin level to near normal value, decreased the pancreatic malondialdehyde levels and increased the pancreatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione indicating it is useful in the management of diabetic hyperglycemia[32]. Aja et al., investigated the hypoglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves by assessing the glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 21-days at different doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight. This study has shown that ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves reduced the glucose level significantly[33]. Une et al., performed a comparative study of metformin and ethanolic extract of M. oleifera Lam. pod for its hypoglycemic activity by assessing the oral glucose tolerance, blood glucose, body weight and biochemical parameters like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and creatinine at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 21 days. The results indicated the reduction of blood glucose level and improvement in the glucose tolerance after 21 days. Also, the extract significantly reduced the elevated serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and creatinine, secondary complications and improved the body weight of alloxan treated rats[34]. Another study by Ali et al., on the potential of M. oleifera leaf extracts in alloxan-induced diabetes rats demonstrated that phytoconsitutents quercetin, chlorogenic acid and moringinine normalized the elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glycose, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl content, c-peptide and total antioxidant capacity. The results showed its potent antidiabetic activity against the alloxan-induced diabetes[35]. Ajibola et al.,[36] observed the effect of aqueous extract of M. oleifera seed on alloxan-induced mild and severe hyperglycemia in rats. The results showed 42.8% and 48.6% decrease in the blood glucose level of the mild hyperglycemic rats after treatment with intraperitoneal and oral M. oleifera seed extracts, respectively, whereas 89.6% and 69.7% decrease in the blood glucose level of the severely affected hyperglycemic rats. The results proved that aqueous extract of M. oleifera seed exhibited potent hypoglycemic activity against mild and severe hyperglycemia[36]. Al-Malki and El Rabey investigated the antidiabetic effect of low doses of M. oleifera Lam. seeds on streptozotocin-induced diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in male rats. Different biochemical parameters like lipid peroxide, IL-6, antioxidant enzyme, immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin were assessed during the study. The results indicated the treatment with low doses of M. oleifera Lam. seeds ameliorated the levels of all biochemical parameters and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas in diabetic rats[37]. In another study, streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats were treated with aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves antihyperglycemic effect in both insulin deficient and insulin resistant rat models were observed[38]. Gupta and his team investigated the antidiabetic effects of methanol extracts of M. oleifera pods in streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats by measuring the biochemical parameters in the serum at 150 or 300 mg/kg bodyweight for 21 days. Significant reduction in nitric oxide and serum glucose whereas associated increase in protein and serum insulin were noticed for both dose levels[39]. Arise et al., tested antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of M.oleifera flower on tretozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight and noticed the improvement in lipid metabolism and its potential in lowering glucose level[40]. Luangpiom et al., studied the anti-hyperglycemic properties of aqueous extract M. oleifera Lam. leaves in normal and mildly diabetic mice by the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Results revealed the improvement in mildly diabetic mice for its glucose tolerance impairment[41]. Different parts of M. oleifera have been studied extensively for its antidiabetic activity. The scientific study concluded that the leaf extract showed potent antidiabetic effect in Wistar rats and adult rats[42-47]. The results indicated that phytoconstituents such as flavonoids like quercetin, phenols, chlorogenic acid, moringinine, vitamin C and E have good antioxidant property and scavenging effect on the free radicals. Presence of these phytoconstituents in M. oleifera produce its antidiabetic effect by lowering the reactive free radicals released from mitochondria and enhancing the cellular antioxidant defenses by protecting β-cells against ROS-mediated damage in hyperglycemic patients[31],[37],[39],[40].

2.3. Anti-ulcer

M. oleifera seed extracts was studied for its antiulcer activity in the dose level of 150 and 200 mg/kg orally in pylorus ligation and compared with standard drug, omeprazole (20 mg/kg). The results have shown a significant (P< 0.05) reduction in the ulcer index such as reduction in gastric volume and decrease in free and total acidity which was comparable with the standard[48]. Das et al., investigated the protective effects of M. oleifera (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) on pyloric ligation gastric ulcers induced experimentally by ibuprofen in rats, famotidine (3.6 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug. Results revealed that M. oleifera extract show significant (P<0.001) reduction of the free and total acidity of gastric juice[49]. Further Verma et al. , performed the antioxidant activity and anti-ulcer of M. oleifera leaves against ethanol and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats which demonstrated that the alcoholic leaf extract of M. oleifera Lam. have shown a dose dependent protective effect against cold restraint stress, ethanol, pylorus-ligation and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats[50]. Extracts of root-bark, stem bark and seed showed antiulcer activity against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats[48],[51],[52]. Several investigations suggested that the secondary metabolites such as flavonoids (quercetin) and tannins has antiulcer activity, steroids such as β-carotene and β-sitosterol reduces the gastric ulcer development, alkaloids such as moringine and moringinine in the root-bark treats ulcer. The antiulcer activity of M. oleifera is based on the stimulation of mucous membrane protective factors and antioxidant defense mechanism probably by metabolizing lipid peroxides and scavenging endogenous H2O2[48],[50],[51],[53].

2.4. Anthelmintic

Nilani et al., investigated the anthelmintic activity of M. oleifera seed oil in Indian adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma) and equated with the standard drug piperazine citrate (10 mg/mL). The results showed the paralysis of the worms leads to loss of its motility followed by fading away of their body color and death[54]. Similar study was performed by Srinivasa et al., on the chloroform and methanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves for its anthelmintic activity and noticed that the chloroform extract has more potent anthelmintic activity in Indian adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma) than the methanolic extract[55]. Ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaves have been investigated for its anthelmintic activity against embryonated eggs, fresh eggs, L1 and L2 larvae of Haemonchus contortus. Five different concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75 and 5 mg/mL) of dry extracts with serial dilution of distilled water were exposed for 6 and 24 h for embryonated eggs and larvae respectively using distilled water and 1.5% DMSO as negative control. The results concluded that ethanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera was most efficient on eggs by inhibiting (60.3 ± 8.2)% and (92.0 ± 6.2)% eggs embryonation at 3.75 and 5 mg/mL respectively; (98.8 ± 2.5)% and (100.0 ± 0.0)% mortality of L1 and L2 larvae at 5 mg/mL respectively[56]. Many investigations have been conducted for its anthelmintic activity with different parts of the plant M. oleifera, results with scientific support suggested that M. oleifera has anthelmintic activity against Indian earthworm Pheritima postuma, Dracunculiasis (guinea worm), schistosomes and trypanosomes[57],[58]. Presence of the phytoconstituents such as oleic acid, saponins, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids in the extract could be responsible for its anthelmintic activity[54],[56].

2.5. Anti-inflammatory

Chandrashekar et al., investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the stem bark of M. oleifera in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema method and compared with diclofenac sodium 25 mg/kg body weight as standard drug. The results revealed that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of M. oleifera showed significant drop in the edema volume at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight and the results were equivalent with the standard[59]. Bhattacharya et al.,[60] performed a relative study of anti-inflammatory activity between M. oleifera leaves extract at different dose levels such as 50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight and aspirin (200 mg/kg) as standard drug by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in Wistar albino rats. The study experiment revealed M. oleifera ethanolic leaf extract showed significant (P < 0.01) reduction of paw edema at 100, 200, 400 mg/kg by inhibiting the release of prostaglandin like substance. It also suggested that phytoconstituents like flavonoids, β-sitosterol, 4-hydroxymellein and vanillin are attributed to its anti-inflammatory activity[60]. Minaiyan et al.,, investigated the comparative study of anti-inflammatory effect between M. oleifera Lam. seeds extract and prednisolone (4 mg/kg) as standard in acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats. This study revealed M. oleifera Lam. seeds extract was effective to treat experimental colitis[61]. Quite a lot of investigation in leaf and seed extract has been carried out proving its anti-inflammatory effects in rats[62-65]. The anti-inflammatory activity of the M. oleifera may be attributed to the presence of phytoconstituents like flavonoids, tocopherols, vitamin C, biophenols, 4-Hydroxymellein, β-sitosterol and vanillin. The mechanism for its anti-inflammatory activity may be by decreasing oxidative stress in inflammation condition, inhibition of enzyme cyclooxygenase which leads to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis mediated through prostaglandin pathway, obstructive production of several cytokines including IL-4, IL-6 and TNF-α by these phytoconstituents[60],[62],[63].

2.6. Antipyretic

Bhattacharya et al., investigated the antipyretic activity in ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves at 50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight and compared with paracetamol (100 mg/kg) as standard pyrexia model in Wistar albino rats. In rats, pyrexia was induced by subsctaneous injection of Brewer’s yeast in normal saline in the dose of 10 mL/kg body weight. Significant antipyretic activity was observed in the dose level of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight when compared with standard[60]. Ahmed et al., performed a comparative antipyretic activity study between hydro alocholic extract of M. oleifera bark at the dose level of 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg/kg, paracetamol 50 mg/kg body weight was used as standard drug in rabbits against E.coli-induced pyrexia. The extracts of M. oleifera bark at the dose level of 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the body temperature[66]. Sutar et al., made an evaluation between ethanolic extract of M. oleifera seed at the dose of 100 mg, 200 mg and 300 mg/kg and paracetamol 150 mg/kg body weight as standard against yeast-induced pyrexia in albino rats. Results showed a significant dose dependent reduction of temperature at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. The antipyretic effect of the ethanolic extract M. oleifera seed was comparable with the standard paracetamol[67]. Hukkeri et al., examined the antipyretic effect of ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of M. oleifera seed at 300 mg/kg. The study demonstrated that M. oleifera seed extract have antipyretic effect which was comparable with paracetamol 200 mg/kg body weight in Wistar male rats. They also identified phytoconstitutents such as phytosterols, phenolic compounds, glycosides, carbohydrates and amino acids are present in the seed extract of M. oleifera[68]. The phytoconstituents like moringinine, flavonoids, tannin, saponins, phenolics, terpenoids and alkaloids are widely distributed in the various part and recognized those phytoconstitutents for its antipyretic effect of M. oleifera[60],[66],[67].

2.7. Analgesic

Bhattacharya et al., investigated the analgesic activity of M. oleifera leaf extracts at doses of 400, 200 and 100 mg/kg body weight by acetic acid-induced writhing and eddy’s hot plate method. The results demonstrated that ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaf extract reduced writhes in a dose dependent manner and percentage inhibition of writhes in the range of 81%, 51% and 26%, respectively. The inhibition of writhes at 400 mg/kg body weight was similar with the standard whereas in Eddy’s hot plate method, it produced a significant increase in the reaction time. Presence of phytoconstituents like flavonoids, tannin, saponins and terpenoids are anticipated for its analgesic effect[60].

2.8. Anti-epileptic

Jou et al., investigated the anti-epileptic activity of M. oleifera leaf extracts in Swiss albino mice, by maximal electro shock seizure, pentylenetetrazole method and pilocarpine induced seizure method. The observed results showed that the extracts prevented the hind limb extension induced by maximal electro shock, decreased the convulsion duration produced by pentylenetetrazole and eradicated the epilepticus status induced seizures by pilocarpine[69]. Jay et al., performed a comparative study between M. oleifera root extract and oxcarbazepine for its protective effect against seizures induced in male Wistar albino mice by maximal electro shock method and quantified the biogenic amine before and after treatment. The root extract showed a dose dependent significant reduction in various phases of epileptic seizure on comparison with the standard oxcarbazepine 20 mg/kg. The levels of biogenic amines such as serotonin, dopamine and nor-adrenaline in the forebrain region were restored in significant level in the extract treated animals and a significant decrease in the time taken for recovery was observed in the experimental animals[70]. Different parts of extract like root, leaf and fruits of M. oleifera were investigated[71],[72],[73] and the results suggested that the mechanism of M. oleifera for its anti-epileptic activity could be by blockage of sodium, chlorine, T type calcium channel, imitative gamma aminobutyric acid glutaminergic mechanism, inhibition of monoamine oxidase enzyme property and prostaglandin synthesis[69],[73].

2.9. Cardioprotective

Chumark et al., investigated the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves for its antiatherosclerotic activities in male New Zealand white rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet and compared with simvastatin as standard. Parameters such as conjugated diene, cholesterol levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and plaque formations were measured after treatment. The aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaf significantly inhibited the TBARS formation and prolonged the lag time of conjugated diene in a dose dependent manner in both in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Also the extract reduced the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and cholesterol levels by 50% and 86% respectively at 12 weeks of treatment. The study result noticed that aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaf had both hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic activities and it could be used for cardiovascular disease prevention[74]. Panda investigated the polyphenolic fraction of M. oleifera leaf extract for its preventive effect on cardiac damage at the dose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day for a period of 28 days; cardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by isoproterenol. Parameters such as creatine kinase, serum troponin-I, lactate dehydrogenase and heart tissue malondialdehyde contents were measured during the study. Also Electro paramagnetic resonance was measured as scavenging potential of the fraction. Isoproterenol induction increased the levels of creatine kinase, serum troponin-I, lactate dehydrogenase and heart tissue malondialdehyde content. The results demonstrated that polypenolic fraction of M. oleifera leaf extract restored the increased levels of creatine kinase, serum troponin-I, lactate dehydrogenase and heart tissue malondialdehyde content to normal levels also reduced the oxidative stress. In conclusion, at the dose of 100 mg/kg/day, M. oleifera leaf extract reduced the myocardial damage and the oxidative stress[75]. Nandave et al., investigated the cardioprotective effect of M. oleifera hydroalcoholic extract in the isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino male rats at 200 mg/kg for a period of 31 days. At the end of the treatment, various hemodynamic parameters such as heart rate, left ventricular peak positive and negative pressures and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were measured. In addition, level of biochemical enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase were measured; also histopathological and ultrastructural studies in hearts were performed. Chronic M. oleifera treatment results demonstrated that mitigating effects were observed for hemodynamic parameters such as mean heart rate, left ventricular peak positive and negative pressures and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Also significant effects on biochemical enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase were observed and the histopathological and ultrastructural perturbations caused by ISP deleterious were prevented. The results established that antioxidant, antiperoxidative and myocardial preservative properties may be the attributing factors for significant cardioprotective effect of M. oleifera leaf extract[76]. Randriamboavonjy et al., investigated the cardioprotective effect of M. oleifera seeds for ameliorate cardiac dysfunction and spontaneous hypertensive rats at a dose level of 750 mg/d for 8 weeks. Parameters such as arterial pressure and heart rate were measured using a telemetric transmitter. Also left ventricle geometry including anterior and interseptal wall thickness was measured before and after treatment. The study results showed reduction of heart rate but the treatment didn’t show any significant modification in blood pressure whereas reduction of left ventricular anterior and interseptal wall thickness was observed. In conclusion, the study report supports M. oleifera seeds as a traditional Malagasy medicine against cardiac diseases[77]. Oluwagbamila et al., examined the role of M. oleifera leaves on electrolyte levels and cardiovascular function in human at a dose of 5.0 g for the duration of 7 days. The study has shown the significant reduction of chloride and sodium ions and non-significant reduction of potassium ions. This significant reduction of electrolyte levels has beneficial effects on cardiovascular function[78]. Sierra-Campos et al., observed the effect of methanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves on nitric oxide synthases and paraoxonase 1 in diabetic rat heart at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 21 days. The study results noticed significant reduction of nitric oxide synthase and paraoxonase 1 activities in heart. The study explored M. oleifera leaves has cardioprotective effects on the diabetic condition[79]. Other studies done by Farooq et al.,[80], Varmani and Garg[81], Jimenez et al.,[82], Koul and Chase[83] and Rada[84] reviewed the potential effects of M. oleifera Lam phytoconstituents for its cardioprotective effect. The review report concluded that moringinine alkaloid from root bark of Moringa stimulates cardiac function, β-sitosterol from the leaves of Moringa has cholesterol reducing effect and Flavonoids- Quercetin has hypolipidemic activity. It is predicted that mechanism of cardioprotective effect of M. oleifera is probably by inflection of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase and peroxidase enzymatic parameters[79],[85].

2.10. Anti-hyperlipidemic

Chatterjee et al., investigated the M. oleifera leaf extract for its hypolipidemic activity in cadmium, exposed adult Wistar rats. On exposure to cadmium, both hyperlipidaemia and hypercholesterolemia were observed. Treatment with M. oleifera leaf extract showed a significant decrease in the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein. The investigation suggest that the elimination of lipids from the body could be the mechanism for its hypolipidemic activity[86]. Ogbuehi et al., evaluated the comparative study of hypolipidemic activity between aqueous leaves extract of M. oleifera at the dose level of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg and atorvastatin (4 mg/kg) as standard drug in albino Wistar rats with high fat diet for 4 weeks. High fat diet significantly raised the levels of triacylglyceride, serum cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotin and decreased the level of high density lipoprotein. The observed result showed after the treatment the aqueous leaves extract of M. oleifera reduced serum triglyceride, all the serum lipoproteins but increased high density lipoprotein level. The study noticed that M. oleifera can be used in the management of hyperlipidemia and associated health conditions[87]. Ghasi et al., investigated the hypocholesterolemic effect of crude leaves extract of M. oleifera Lam. in obese patients with high-fat diet. High fat diet increased the serum, liver, and kidney cholesterol levels. On treatment with M. oleifera Lam. leaves extract showed statistically significant reduction of serum, liver, and kidney cholesterol levels, and also increased the serum albumin level significantly[88]. Ara et al., made a comparative evaluation of anti-hyperlipidemic effect between the ethanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight and atenolol (standard) at the dose of 50 mg/70 kg body weight in adrenaline-induced rats. Parameters such as serum triglyceride level, serum cholesterol level, blood glucose level, heart and body weight were measured before and after the treatment. In addition to serum triglyceride, other parameters were observed in higher amount in adrenaline-induced rats. On treatment, ethanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera significantly reduced all the elevated parameters. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that M. oleifera leaves extract possessed very good hypolipidemic activity[89]. Rajanandh et al.,[90] evaluated the hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves for its hyperlipidemic activity in rats for a period of 28 days at two different dose levels such as 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with hydroalcoholic extract of M. oleifera leaves shows noteworthy reduction in elevated levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, body weight, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and increases high density lipoprotein level. The study concluded that M. oleifera can be given as an adjunct for coronary artery disease. Mehta et al., investigated the M. oleifera fruit for the effect on the lipid profile of normal and hypercholesterolaemia rabbits at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day and compared with lovastatin 6 mg/kg/day as standard for 120 days. The result divulged that M. oleifera decreased the triglyceride, phospholipid, serum chloesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, cholesterol to phospholipid ratio and atherogenic index and increases high density lipoprotein ratio (HDL/HDL-total cholesterol). The study noticed that increased excretion of faecal cholesterol was observed and concluded that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidaemic effect[91]. Sparman investigated a herbal formulation consisting of M. oleifera, Bryophyllum pinnatum and Vitamin C on blood pressure, cholesterol levels and blood glucose for six months. On treatment with herbal formulation a significant reduction of Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol and significant increase of High Density Lipoprotein was observed in all the participants. The study demonstrated that this herbal formulation can be used for the management of risk factors for cardiovascular disease[92]. Anti-hyperlipidemic effect of M. oleifera is attributed to the presence of β-sitosterol as a main phytoconstituent in the extracts and increased excretion of faecal cholesterol may be attributed for its antihyperlipidemic effect[91],[93].

2.11. Anti-hypertensive

Sana et al., investigated the hypertensive activity of M. oleifera root extracts in Normotensive Sprague Dawley rats. Dichloromethane and petroleum ether extracts of M. oleifera roots showed a reduction in mean arterial blood pressure which was comparable with control group[94]. The study also demonstrated that the anti-hypertensive effect of M. oleifera root extracts may be due to the presence of phytoconstituents such as hydrocarbons, thioureides, steroids, fatty acid esters and isothiocyanates. It was proven that phytoconstituents such as isothiocyanates and thiocarbamate glycoside were accredited for its anti-hypertensive effect[95],[96].

2.12. Hepatoprotective

Dondee et al., investigated the hepatoprotective activity of M. oleifera leaf extract at the dose level of 100, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg in mice infected with Plasmodium (P.) berghei ANKA). P. berghei infection significantly increased the level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase but decreased the level of albumin in untreated mice. Aqueous leaf extracts of M. oleifera showed a dose dependent hepatoprotective activity in liver injury induced by P. berghei infection and significantly decrease the elevated level of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in addition to significant increase of the albumin level[97]. The results also demonstrated that phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, polyphenol, terpenoids, kaempferol and quercetin are present in the extract. It is speculated that flavonoids and polyphenol contribute for its hepatoprotective activity. Singh et al., evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of M. oleifera leaf extract in (CCl4) intoxicated rats at the dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day, for 60 days and compared with silymarin as standard drug. Treatment with M. oleifera leaf extract showed significant modification of all serum enzymes in a dose dependent manner. Results noticed that hepatoprotective activity is due to its free radical scavenging activity of phenolics and flavonoids[98]. Saalu et al., investigated the hepato-protective effect of M. oleifera leaf extract in alcohol-induced hepatotoxic rats when subjected to 300 mg/kg body weight/day for 56 days. Parameters such as liver histology, liver oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione and malondialdehyde), and liver biomarker enzymes (serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and Gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase) were evaluated before and after treatment. Alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity showed marked distortion of the liver cyto-architecture, significant reduction of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione and significant increase in malondialdehyde, serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and Gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase were observed. Treatment with M. oleifera showed remarkable preservation in their histological profiles, restoring the liver oxidative stress and liver biomarker enzymes to the normal level. The study revealed that hepatoprotective effect could be due to its free radicals scavenging capability of M. oleifera leaf extract[99]. Nanjappaiah and Hugar, studied the effect of 70% ethanolic extract of M. oleifera Lam. pods in CCl4 damaged rat liver at the dose level of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg in rats. Biochemical marker enzymes such as serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, acidic phosphatase, bilirubin, glutathione, malondialdehyde and liver histophology were evaluated. On treatment with 70% ethanolic extract of M. oleifera Lam. pods, a significant reduction of biochemical marker enzymes, glutathione, significant increase of malondialdehyde and incredible preservation of liver histological profiles were observed[100]. In other studies, the researchers treated CCl4-induced liver damage in rats with M. oleifera leaf extract and noticed that liver histopathological profile and liver enzymes were restored to its normal level indicating its hepatoprotective effect[101],[102]. Several studies have been performed with different parts of M. oleifera for its hepatoprotective activity against the acetaminophen, diclofenac, antitubercular drug (isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide) and cadmium-induced liver damage in rats. The study results showed that M. oleifera enhanced the recovery from hepatic damage and it can act as hepatoprotective agent[103],[104],[105],[106]. The mechanism for its hepatoprotective activity of M. oleifera may be due to its free radicals scavenging ability and enhanced distinctive antioxidant effect[99],[102].

2.13. Anti-nephrotoxicity

Paliwal and his research team investigated the M. oleifera pods extract for its antinephrotoxicity in 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced renal carcinogenesis of Swiss albino mice for 14 days, and assessed the altered renal oxidative stress parameters like superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, and catalase in the kidney of mice. Altered renal oxidative stress parameters results were restored near to the normal values, after extract treatment[107]. The mechanism for its anti-nephrotoxicity is induction of antioxidant profile by the phytoconstituents such as β-carotene, vitamin A and C, also the oxidative free radical scavenging activities by the other phytoconstituents like phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloids. Mansour et al., evaluated the antihepatotoxicity and antinephrotoxicity activity of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in rat. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity were induced by γ-radiation. Induction by γ-radiation showed significant modification in different biochemical parameters such as malondialdehyde, total nitrate/nitrite levels, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione content, aminotransferase, alanine, aspartate aminotransferase, level of creatinine and urea nitrogen in serum. The treatment restored the modified biochemical parameters. The above study results demonstrated that free radical scavenging activity might be attributed for its nephroprotective effect[108].

2.14. Anti-microbial

Ratshilivha et al., investigated the antimicrobial activity of acetone extract of M. oleifera leaves by utilizing different bacteria such as Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia (E.) coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and different fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They concluded that acetone extract of M. oleifera leaves has antimicrobial activity[109]. Arora and Onsare evaluated the M. oleifera pod husks for antimicrobial activity by agar dilution method against Gram negative, Gram positive bacteria and yeast pathogens and the results at the concentration of 0.4-4 mg mL/L were compared with Ciprofloxacin 6.7 mg/L and Amphotericin B 750 mg/L as standard. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the Gram positive bacteria were found to be 400 mg/L; whereas for Gram negative bacteria and Candida tropicalis were killed instantly at minimum inhibitory concentration with concentrations ranging from 800 mg/L to 8 000 mg/L. The study concluded that the M. oleifera pod husks had antimicrobial activity against Gram negative, Gram positive bacteria and yeast pathogens; also highlighted phytoconstituents such as flavonoids and diterpenes were recognized for its antimicrobial activity[110]. Antimicrobial study of M. oleifera leaves was performed by Jayawardana et al., in chicken sausages at various concentration like 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1.00%. Parameters such as TBARS value, pH and microbial analysis were assessed. A significant (P<0.05) value was observed for TBARS, pH and microbial analysis at the concentration of 0.50%, 0.75% and 1.00%. They concluded that M. oleifera leaves could be used to extend the shelf-life of consumable food materials[111]. Rahman et al., evaluated the antibacterial property of M. oleifera leaves extract using disc diffusion and minimimum inhibitory concentration method against some human pathogenic bacteria and compared with tetracycline as standard. The study disclosed ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves at 1 175 μg/disc exhibited antibacterial activity against both Gram negative Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea and Bacillus megaterium and Gram positive bacteria Shigella shinga, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei and Pseudomonas spp, and the potential antibacterial activity of the extract was similar extremely with the standard[112]. Peixoto et al., evaluated the antimicrobial effect of aqueous and ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaf by disc diffusion method at the concentration of 100, 200, 300 and 400 μL of extract at 20 g/180 mL and 10 g/190 mL against E. coli, S.aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis and Aeromonas caviae. The study results revealed that the discs with 400 μL extract have shown the antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Enterococcus faecalis and Aeromonas caviae[113].

Moyo et al., examined the antibacterial activity of acetone extract of M. oleifera leaves at a concentration of 5 mg/mL against E. coli, Enterobacter cloace, Proteus vulgaris, S.aureus and Micrococcus kristinae. The study result revealed that the acetone extract have both bactericidal activity against E. coli and M. kristinae; bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus, E. cloace and P. vulgaris[114]. A study performed by Thilza et al., observed the antimicrobial activity of water extract of M. oleifera leaf stalk by disc diffusion method against S.albus, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, E.coli, S.aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Staphylococcus pyogenus at the dilution of 1 000 mg/mL, 700 mg/mL, 400 mg/mL and 200 mg/mL. The study results determined that water extract of M.oleifera leaf stalk showed antimicrobial activity against E.coli at 1 000 mg/mL[115]. Saadabi and Zaid investigated the antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of M.oleifera L. seed against different bacterias such as S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungi such as Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans at 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% extract concentration. The study result concluded that aqueous extract of M. oleifera L. seed had antibacterial activity against all bacterial strains whereas for fungi less or no activity was observed[116]. Nikkon et al., isolated an aglycon of Deoxy- Niazimicine (N-benzyl, S-ethyl thioformate) from M. oleifera Lam root bark and investigated the same for its antimicrobial activity against fourteen pathogenic bacteria and six pathogenic fungi and compared with the chloroform crude extract of M. oleifera Lam root bark. The results revealed that isolated compound had more antibacterial and antifungal activity when compared to the crude extract[117]. Vieira et al., examined the aqueous and ethanolic extract of M. oleifera seeds against S. aureus, Vibrio cholerae, E. coli and Salmonella enteritidis at the concentration of 50, 100, 150 and 200 μL/dish. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera seeds showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, Vibrio cholerae and E. coli[118].

  3. Conclusions Top

M. oleifera served as an effective solution for the harmful effects posed by the synthetic resources and also other disputes prevailing in the modern era. Our present review summarized the high nutritional values and biomedical activities of M. oleifera such as immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, anti-ulcer, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, cardioprotective, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-hypertensive, hepatoprotective, anti-nephrotoxicity and antimicrobial activity.

The chemical constituents of M. oleifera are very well investigated and documented yet it is not clear as to what extent the various constituents present in M. oleifera preparations interrelate through additive, synergistic, and /or inhibitory effects. Thus authors suggest further studies should emphasize on the mechanism of action of the isolates and constituents of the moringa plant. The advances in biotechnological techniques and rich phytochemical profile can lead to generation of new opportunities aimed towards development of overall commercial value of the tree.

The authors conclude that in order to establish and exploit complete uses of the miracle tree, market development strategies, strong policies and research are required. Moringa should be promoted for further consumption to develop nutrition and therapeutic functions as well.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Authors’ contributions

AU and SLP conceived the presented idea. AP encouraged SLP to investigate the pharmacological activities of the plant. All the three authors discussed the construction of manuscript. SLP took the lead in drafting the manuscript with support from AU. SLP and AU worked out almost all the technical details, done the critical revision of the article with the support of AP. AU devised the main conceptual ideas and proof outline of the manuscript. All the authors SLP, AU and AP discussed the results and contributed towards the comments on the manuscript.

  References Top

Verma S, Singh SP. Current and future status of herbal medicines. Vet World 2006; 1(11): 347- 350.  Back to cited text no. 1
Hemphill TLC, Cobiac L. Health benefits of herbs and spices: The past, the present, the future. Med J Aust 2006; 185: S4–S24.  Back to cited text no. 2
Kasolo JN, Bimenya GS, Ojok L, Ochieng J, Ogwal-Okeng JW. Phytochemicals and uses of Moringa oleifera leaves in Ugandan rural communities. J Med Plants Res 2010; 4(9): 753-757.  Back to cited text no. 3
Fahey J. A review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Trees for life J 2005; 1:5-15.  Back to cited text no. 4
Mahmood KT, Mugal T, Ul Haq I. Moringa oleifera: A natural gift-A review. J Pharm Sci Res 2010; 2(11): 775-781.  Back to cited text no. 5
Fahey JW. Moringa oleifera: A review of the medicinal evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Part I. Trees for Life J 2005; 1: 5.  Back to cited text no. 6
Amjad MS, Qureshi H, Arshad M, Chaudhari SK, Masood M. The incredible queen of green: Nutritive value and therapeutic potential of Moringa oleifera Lam. J Coastal Life Med 2015; 3(9): 744-751.  Back to cited text no. 7
Mishra G, Singh P, Verma R, Kumar S, Srivastav S, Jha KK, et al., Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Moringa oleifera plant: An overview. Scholars Research Library 2011; 3(2): 141-164.  Back to cited text no. 8
Gopalakrishnan L, Doriyaa K, Kumar DS. Moringa oleifera: A review on nutritive importance and its medicinal application. Food Sci Hum Wellness 2016; 5(2016): 49–56.  Back to cited text no. 9
Rockwood JL, Anderson BG, Casamatta DA. Potential uses of Moringa oleifera and an examination of antibiotic efficacy conferred by M. oleifera seed and leaf extracts using crude extraction techniques available to under-served indigenous populations. Int J Phytothearpy Res 2013; 3: 61–71.  Back to cited text no. 10
Dubey DK, Dora J, Kumar A, Gulsan RK. A multipurpose tree Moringa oleifera. Int J Pharma Che Sci 2013; 2(1): 415-423.  Back to cited text no. 11
Anwar F, Latif S, Ashraf M, Gilani AH. Moringa oleifera: A food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytother Res 2007; 21(1): 17–25.  Back to cited text no. 12
Goyal BR, Agrawal BB, Goyal RK, Mehta AA. Phy to-pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Lam. An overview. Nat Prod Rad 2007; 6(4): 347-353.  Back to cited text no. 13
Oliveira JTA, Silveira SB, Vasconcelos IM, Cavada BS, Moreira RA. Compositional and nutritional attributes of seeds from the multiple purpose tree Moringa oleifera Lamarck. J Sci Food Agric 1999; 79(6): 815-820.  Back to cited text no. 14
Makkar HPS, Becker K. Nutrients and antiquality factors in different morphological parts of the Moringa oleifera tree. J Agric Sci 1997; 128(3): 311-322.  Back to cited text no. 15
Asiedu-Gyekye IJ, Frimpong-Manso S, Awortwe C, Antwi DA, Nyarko AK. Micro- and macroelemental composition and safety evaluation of the nutraceutical Moringa oleifera leaves. J Toxicol 2014; 2014: 1–13. Article ID 786979  Back to cited text no. 16
Wadhwa S, Panwar MS, Saini N, Rawat SS, Singhal S. A review on commercial, traditional uses, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activity of Moringa oleifera. Global J Trad Med Sys 2013; 2(1): 1–13.  Back to cited text no. 17
Hassan FAG, Ibrahim MA. Moringa oleifera: Nature is most nutritious and multi-purpose tree. Int J Scientific Res Pub 2013; 3(4): 1-5.  Back to cited text no. 18
Mehta J, Shukla A, Bukhariya V, Charde R. The magic remedy of Moringa oleifera: An overview. Int JBiomed Adv Res 2011; 2(5): 215–227.  Back to cited text no. 19
Ferreria PMP, Farias DF, Oliveira JTA, Carvalho, A. Moringa oleifera: Bioactive compounds and nutritional potential. Rev Nutr Campinas 2008; 21(4): 431-437.  Back to cited text no. 20
Cooper MD, Schroeder HW. Primary immune deficiency diseases. In: Harrison TR (ed.). Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. New York: Mc Graw-Hill; 2005, p. 1939-1941.  Back to cited text no. 21
Nfambi J, Bbosa GS, Sembajwe L F, Gakunga J, Kasalo JN. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in Wistar albino rats. J Basic Clic Physiol Pharmacol 2015; 26(6): 603-611.  Back to cited text no. 22
Gupta A, Gautam MK, Singh RK, Kumar MV, Rao CV, Anupurba RK. Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam on cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice. Ind J Exp Biol 2010; 48(11) :1157–1160.  Back to cited text no. 23
Gaikwad SB, Mohan GK, Reddy KJ. Moringa oleifera leaves: Immunomodulation in Wistar albino rats. Int J Pharmacy Pharma Sci 2011; 3(5): 426-430.  Back to cited text no. 24
Deshmukh P, Sharma RK, Sharma V, Jain P. Immunomodulatory activity of Moringa oleifera in albino rats. J Ani Res 2015; 5(2): 277-281.  Back to cited text no. 25
Sharma AK, Ahmad S, Sharma S. Phytochemical investigation & immunomodulatory activity of Moringa Oleifera root. Asi J Bioche Pharma Res 2013; 1(3): 261-266.  Back to cited text no. 26
Akhouri S, Prasad A, Ganguly S. Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract in broiler chicks. Ind Vet J 2014; 91(2): 52-54.  Back to cited text no. 27
Rachmawati I, Rifa’I M. In vitro immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf to the CD4+, CD8+ and B220+ cells in Mus musculus. J Exp Life Sci 2014; 4(1): 15-20.  Back to cited text no. 28
Oyewo EB, Adetutu A, Adesokan AA, Akanji MA. Repeated oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Moringa oleifera modulated immunoactivities in wistar rats. J Nat Sci Res 2013; 3(6): 100-109.  Back to cited text no. 29
Banji OJ, Banji D, Kavitha R. Immunomodulatory effect of alcholoic and hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa olifera Lam leaves. Ind J Exp Biol 2012; 50(4): 270-276.  Back to cited text no. 30
Soliman GZA. Anti-diabetic activity of dried Moringa oleifera leaves in normal and streptozotocin (Stz)-induced diabetic male rats. Ind J App Res 2013; 3(9): 18-23.  Back to cited text no. 31
Adeeyo AO, Adefule AK, Ofusori DA, Aderinola AA, Caxton-Martins EA. Antihyperglycemic effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Mistletoe and Moringa oleifera in streptozotocin-induced diabetes wistar rats. Diabetol Croat 2013; 42(3): 81-88.  Back to cited text no. 32
Aja PM, Igwenyi IO, Ugwu Okechukwu PC, Orji OU, Alum EU. Evaluation of anti-diabetic effect and liver function indices of ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera and Cajanus Cajan leaves in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. Glob Vet 2015; 14(3): 439-447.  Back to cited text no. 33
Une HD, Pradip S, Patave TR. A study on the effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. pod extract on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Asian J Plant Sci Res 2014; 4(1): 36-41.  Back to cited text no. 34
Ali FT, Hassan NS, Abdrabou RR. Potential activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and some active ingredients against diabetes in rats. Int J Sci Engg Res 2015; 6(5): 1490-1500.  Back to cited text no. 35
Ajibola M, Eunice O, Stephanie IN. Effect of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera seeds on alloxan induced hyperglycemia. Basic Sci Med 2014; 3(3): 37-42.  Back to cited text no. 36
Al-Malki AL, El Rabey HA. The antidiabetic effect of low doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in male rats. BioMed Res Int 2015; 2015:1–13.  Back to cited text no. 37
Divi SM, Bellamkonda R, Dasireddy SK. Evaluation of antidiabetic and antihyperlipedemic potential of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera in fructose fed insulin resistant and STZ induced diabetic wistar rats: A comparative study. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012; 5(1): 67–72.  Back to cited text no. 38
Gupta R, Mathur M, Bajai VK, Katariya P, Yadav S, Kamal R, et al. Evaluation of antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera in experimental diabetes. J Diabetes 2012; 4(2): 164–171.  Back to cited text no. 39
Arise RO, Aburo OR, Farohunbi ST, Adewale AA. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of dried flowers of Moringa oleifera in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Acta Fac Med Naiss 2016; 33(4): 259-272  Back to cited text no. 40
Luangpiom A, Kourjampa W, Junaimaung T. Anti-hyperglycemic properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. aqueous leaf extract in normal and mildly diabetic mice. Br J Pharmacol Toxicol 2013; 4(3): 106-109.  Back to cited text no. 41
Hussain SS, Khalid HE, Ahmed SM. Anti-diabetic activity of the leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. growing in Sudan on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Br J Med Health Res 2016; 3(4): 48-57.  Back to cited text no. 42
Yassa HD, Tohamy AF. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in adult rats. Acta Histochem 2014; 116(5): 844-854.  Back to cited text no. 43
Mbikay M. Therapeutic potential of Moringa oleifera leaves in chronic hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia: A review. Front Pharmacol 2012; 3: 24.  Back to cited text no. 44
Tende JA, Ezekiel I, Dikko AAU, Goji ADT. Effect of ethanolic leaves extract of Moringa oleifera on blood glucose levels of streptozotocin induced diabetes and normoglycemic Wistar rats. Br J Pharmacol Toxicol 2011; 2(1):1-4.  Back to cited text no. 45
Ghiridhari WA, Malhati D, Geetha K. Anti-diabetic properties of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaf tablets. Int J Health Nutr 2011; 2: 1–5.  Back to cited text no. 46
Jaiswal D, Rai PK, Kumar A, Mehta S, Watal G. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves aqueous extract therapy on hyperglycemic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2009; 123(3): 392-396.  Back to cited text no. 47
Kansara SS, Singhal M. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Moringa oleifera seed extract. J Pharma Sci Bioscientific Res 2013; 3(1): 20-25.  Back to cited text no. 48
Das D, Dash D, Mandal T, Kishore A and Bairy K L. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats. Res J Pharma Bio Che Sci 2011; 2(2): 50-55.  Back to cited text no. 49
Verma VK, Singh N, Saxena P, Singh R. Anti-ulcer and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera leaves against aspirin and ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats. Int Res J Pharmaceuticals 2012; 2(2): 46-57.  Back to cited text no. 50
Choudhary MK, Bodakhe SH, Gupta SK. Assessment of the antiulcer potential of Moringa oleifera root-bark extract in rats. J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2013; 6(4): 214–220.  Back to cited text no. 51
Balekar N, Dixit P, Gupta P. Investigation of stem bark of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) for antiulcer activity. Cur Res Pharm Sci 2014; 4(1): 2933.  Back to cited text no. 52
Vimala G, Shoba GF. A review on antiulcer activity of few Indian medicinal plants. Int J Microbio 2014; 2014: 1-14.  Back to cited text no. 53
Nilani P, Pinaka MK, Duraisamy B, Dhamodaran P, Jeyaprakash MR. Antihelminthic activity of Moringa oleifera seed oil-validation of traditional use. J Adv Sci Res 2012; 3(2): 65-66.  Back to cited text no. 54
Srinivasa U, Amrutia Joy N, Reena K, Rajan MS. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and anthelmintic activity of Moringa oleifera leaves. Int Res J Pharm 2011; 8(2): 130-131.  Back to cited text no. 55
Tayo MG, Pone JW, Komtangi MC, Yondo J, Ngangout AM, Mbida M. Anthelminthic activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts evaluated in vitro on four developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus from Goats. Am J Plant Sci 2014; 5(11): 1702-1710.  Back to cited text no. 56
Fatima T, Sajid MS, Jawad-ul-Hassan M, Siddique RM, Iqbal Z. Phytomedicinal value of Moringa oleifera with special reference to antiparasitics. Pak J Agri Sci 2014; 51(1): 251-262.  Back to cited text no. 57
Giri IC, Qureshi MDS, Khan SF, Patel J, Choudhary R, Singh A. Evaluation of the anthelmintic activity of Moringa oleifera seeds. Int J Pharma Professional’s Res 2010; 1(1): 88-89.  Back to cited text no. 58
Chandrashekar KS, Thakur A, Prasanna KS. Anti-inflammatory activity of Moringa oleifera stem bark against carrageenan induced rat paw edema. J Che Pharma Res 2010; 2(3): 179-181.  Back to cited text no. 59
Bhattacharya A, Naik MR, Agarwal D, Rath K, Kumar S, Mishra SS. Anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of leaf extract of drumstick tree. J Young Pharm 2014; 6(4): 20-24.  Back to cited text no. 60
Minaiyan M, Asghari G, Taheri D, Saeidi M, Nasr-Esfahani S. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid- induced acute colitis in rats. Avicenna J Phytomed 2014; 4(2): 127-136.  Back to cited text no. 61
Fayazuddin M, Ahmad F, Kumar A, Yunus SM. An experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Moringa oleifera seeds. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 5(3): 717-721.  Back to cited text no. 62
Singh GP, Garg R, Bhardwaj S, Sharma SK. Anti-inflammatory evaluation of leaf extract of Moringa oleifera. J Pharm Scientific Inno 2012; 1(1): 22-24.  Back to cited text no. 63
Manaheji H, Jafari S, Zaringhalam J, Rezazadeh S, Taghizadfarid R. Analgesic effects of methanolic extracts of the leaf or root of Moringa oleifera on complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2011; 9(2): 216-222.  Back to cited text no. 64
Charde RM, Charde MS. Evaluation of ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for wound healing, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities on rats. Humdard Med 2009; 52(2): 595.  Back to cited text no. 65
Ahmad S, Shah SM, Alam MK, Usmanghani K, Azhar I, Akram M. Antipyretic activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Moringa oleifera in rabbits. Pak J Pharm Sci 2014; 27(4): 931-934.  Back to cited text no. 66
Sutar NG, Patil VV, Deshmukh TA, Jawle NM, Patil VR, Bhangale SC. Evaluation of anti-pyretic potential of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. Int J Green Pharm 2009; 3(2):148-150.  Back to cited text no. 67
Hukkeri VI, Nagathan CV, Karadi RV, Patil BSM. Antipyretic and wound healing activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. in rats. Ind J Pharm Sci 2006; 68(1):124-126.  Back to cited text no. 68
Joy AE, Thalanjeri P, Manikkoth S. Anticonvulsant activity of Moringa oleifera in swiss albino mice. Int J Appl Bio Pharma Tech 2015; 6(2): 142-146.  Back to cited text no. 69
Jay AN, Minaxi L, Shrinivasa U, Shabaraya AR, Semuel RM. Anticonvulsant activity of Moringa oleifera leaf. Int Res J Pharm 2011: 2(7): 160–162.  Back to cited text no. 70
Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Chakrabarti S. CNS activities of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera root in mice. Fitoterapia 1999; 70(3): 244-250.  Back to cited text no. 71
Fathima SN, Vasudevamurthy S, Rajkumar N. A review on phytoextracts with antiepileptic property. J Pharm Sci Res 2015; 7(11): 994-1003.  Back to cited text no. 72
Quazi ER, Chaware VJ, Shekh SF. Evaluation of anti-epileptic activity of fresh fruit juice of Moringa oleifera against maximal electroshock (M.E.S) and Picrotoxin (PTX) induced convulsions in mice. Int J Pharmacol Res 2016; 6(8): 278-281.  Back to cited text no. 73
Chumark P, Khunawat P, Sanvarinda Y, Phornchirasilp S, Morales NP, Phivthongngam L, et al., The in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant properties, hypolipidaemic and anthiatherosclerotic activities of water extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 2008: 116(3): 439-446.  Back to cited text no. 74
Panda S. Butanolic fraction of Moringa oleifera attenuates isoproterenol induced cardiac necrosis and oxidative stress in rats: An EPR study. EXCLIJ 2015; 14: 64-74.  Back to cited text no. 75
Nandave M, Ojha SK, Joshi S, Kumari S, Arya DS. Moringa oleifera leaf extract prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage in rats: Evidence for an antioxidant, antiperoxidative, and cardioprotective intervention. J Med Food 2009; 12(1): 47–55.  Back to cited text no. 76
Randriamboavonjy JI, Loirand G, Vaillant N, Lauzier B, Derbre S, Michalet S, et al. Cardiac protective effects of Moringa oleifera seeds in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Am J Hypertens 2016; 29(7): 873-881.  Back to cited text no. 77
Oluwagbamila OB, Adinoyi SS, Ademola AO. Role of Moringa oleifera on electrolytes levels and cardiovascular function in human. Ther Adv Cardiol 2017; 1(3): 80-86.  Back to cited text no. 78
Sierra-Campos E, Valdez-Solana MA, Perez-Velazquez JR, Garcia- Arenas G, Tellez-Valencia A, Avitia-Dominguez C. Moringa oleifera leaves extract regulate the activity of nitric oxide synthases and paraoxonase 1 in diabetic rat. MOJ Biorg Org Chem 2018; 2(5):236-241.  Back to cited text no. 79
Farooq F, Rai M, Tiwari A, Khan AA, Farooq S. Medicinal properties of Moringa oleifera: An overview of promising healer. J Med Plants Res 2012; 6(27): 4368-4374.  Back to cited text no. 80
Varmani SG, Garg M. Health benefits of Moringa Oleifera: A Miracle Tree. Int J Food Nutri Sci 2014; 3(3): 111-117.  Back to cited text no. 81
Vergara-Jimenez M, Almatrafi MM, Fernandez ML. Bioactive components in Moringa Oleifera leaves protect against chronic disease. Antioxidants 2017; 6(4): 91. doi:10.3390/antiox6040091.  Back to cited text no. 82
Koul B, Chase N. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Panacea to several maladies. J Che Pharm Res 2015; 7(6): 687-707.  Back to cited text no. 83
Rada FH. Association of lipid fractions levels with cardiovascular disease. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017; 10(3): 180-182.  Back to cited text no. 84
Gunjal MA, Shah AS, Wakade AS, Juvekar AR. Protective effect of aqueous extract of Moringa olifera Lam stem bark on serum lipids, marker enzymes and heart antioxidants parameters in isoproterenol – induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats. Ind J Nat Prod Resour 2010; 1(4); 485-492.  Back to cited text no. 85
Chatterjee PK, Vinodini NA, Amemarsoofi A, Nayanatara AK, Pai SR, Suman VB. Hypolipidemic effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract in cadmium exposed rats. Int J Inno Res Sci Engg Tech 2013; 2(9): 47184723.  Back to cited text no. 86
Ogbuehi I, Adikwu E, Oputiri D. Lipid lowering and appetite suppressive effect of leaves of Moringa oleifera in rats. Br J Pharmacol Toxicol 2014; 5(3): 103-108.  Back to cited text no. 87
Ghasi S, Nwobodo E, Ofili JO. Hypocholesterolemic effects of crude extract of leaf of Moringa oleifera Lam in high fat diet fed wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2000; 69(1): 21–25.  Back to cited text no. 88
Ara N, Rashid M, Amran MS. Comparison of Moringa oleifera leaves extract with atenolol on serum triglyceride, serum cholesterol, blood glucose, heart weight, body weight in adrenaline induced rats. Saudi J Biol Sci 2008; 15(2):253-258.  Back to cited text no. 89
Rajanandh MG, Satishkumar MN, Elango K, Suresh B. Moringa oleifera Lam. A herbal medicine for hyperlipidemia: A preclinical report. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2012; 2(2): 790–795.  Back to cited text no. 90
Mehta LK, Balaraman R, Amin AH, Bafna PA, Gulati OD. Effect of fruits of Moringa oleifera on the lipid profile of normal and hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol 2003; 86(2-3): 191–195.  Back to cited text no. 91
Sparman A. Combination of Moringa oleifera, Bryophyllum pinnatum and Vitamin C in the management of key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Nat Prod Chem Res 2017; 5:5. DOI: 10.4172/23296836.1000276.  Back to cited text no. 92
Bais S, Singh GS, Sharma R. Antiobesity and hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Leaves against high fat diet-induced obesity in rats. Adv Biol 2014; 2014: Article ID 162914.  Back to cited text no. 93
Sana A, Saleem R, Faizi S. Hypotensive activity of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) root extracts and its volatile constituents. Trop J Pharma Res 2015; 14(5): 823-830.  Back to cited text no. 94
Faizi S, Siddiqui B, Saleem R, Siddiqui S, Aftab K, Gilani A. Novel hypotensive agents, niazimin A, niazimin B, niazicin A and niazicin B from Moringa oleifera; Isolation of first naturally occurring carbamates. J Chem Soc Perkin Transaction I 1994; 1(20): 3035–3640.  Back to cited text no. 95
Faizi S, Siddiqui BS, Saleem R, Siddiqui S, Aftab K, Gilani AH. Fully acetylated carbamate and hypotensive thiocarbamate glycosides from Moringa oleifera. Phytochemistry 1995; 38: 957–963.  Back to cited text no. 96
Dondee K, Borkaew P, Klubsri C, Bootprom P, Saiphet B, Somsak V. The protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on liver damage in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. J Coastal life Med 2016; 4(9): 742-746.  Back to cited text no. 97
Singh D, Arya PV, Aggarwal VP, Gupta RS. Evaluation of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves in carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats. Antioxidants 2014; 3: 569-591  Back to cited text no. 98
Saalu LC, Ogunlade B, Ajayi GO, Oyewopo AO, Akunna GG, Ogunmodede OS. The hepatoprotective potentials of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar rat. Am J Biotechnol Mol Sci 2012; 2(1): 6-14.  Back to cited text no. 99
Nanjappaiah HM, Hugar S. Prophylactic and curative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. pods in CCl4 damaged rat liver. Ind J Nat Prod Resource 2012; 3(4): 541–546.  Back to cited text no. 100
Selvakumar D, Natarajan P. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Pharmacogn Mag 2008; 4(13): 97-98.  Back to cited text no. 101
El-bakry K, Toson E, Serag M, Aboser M. Hepatoprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves extract against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. World J Pharmacy Pharma Sci 2016; 5(5): 76-89.  Back to cited text no. 102
Karthivashan G, Arulselvan P, Tan S, Fakurazi S. The molecular mechanism underlying the hepatoprotective potential of Moringa oleifera leaves extract against acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in mice. J Funct Foods 2015; 17: 115–126.  Back to cited text no. 103
Taha NR, Rabah SO, Shaker SA, Mograby MM. Effect of Moringa oleifera Leaves on diclofenac sodium induced hepatic injury in albino rats: Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies. J Cytol Histol 2015; 6(2): 315.  Back to cited text no. 104
Toppo R, Roy BK, Gora RH, Baxla SL, Kumar P. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats. Vet World 2015; 8(4); 537-540.  Back to cited text no. 105
Belliraj TS, Anima Nanda, Ragunathan R. In-vitro hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles. J Che Pharma Res 2015; 7(2):781-788.  Back to cited text no. 106
Paliwal R, Sharma V, Pracheta, Sharma S, Yadav S, Sharma S. Anti-nephrotoxic effects of administration of Moringa oleifera in amelioration of DMBA-induced renal carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice. Bio Med 2011; 3(2): 27-35.  Back to cited text no. 107
Mansour HH, Azeem MGAE, Ismael NE. Protective effect of Moringa oleifera on γ-radiation-induced Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Rats. Am J Phytomed Clin Ther 2014; 2(4): 495-508.  Back to cited text no. 108
Ratshilivha N, Awouafack MD, du Toit ES, Eloff JN. The variation in antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of acetone leaf extracts of 12 Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) trees enables the selection of trees with additional uses. S Afr J Bot 2014; 92: 59-64.  Back to cited text no. 109
Arora DS, Onsare JG. In vitro antimicrobial evaluation and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera pod husks. Ind Crops Prod 2014; 52(2014): 125-135.  Back to cited text no. 110
Jayawardana BC, Liyanage R, Lalantha N, Iddamalgoda S, Weththasinghe P. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves in herbal chicken sausages. LWT-Food Sci Tech 2015; 64(2): 1204-1208.  Back to cited text no. 111
Rahman MM, Sheikh MMI, Sharmin SA, Islam MS, Rahman MA, Rahman MM, et al. Antibacterial activity of leaf juice extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against some human pathogenic bacteria. CMU J Nat Sci 2009; 8(2): 219-227.  Back to cited text no. 112
Peixoto JR, Silva GC, Costa RA, de Sousa Fontenelle JR, Vieira GH, Filho AA, et al., In vitro antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf ex tracts. Asian Pacific J Trop Med 2011; 4(3): 201-204.  Back to cited text no. 113
Moyo B, Masika PJ, Muchenje V. Antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera Lam leaf extracts. Afr J Biotech 2012; 11(11): 2797-2802.  Back to cited text no. 114
Thilza IB, Sanni S, Isah ZA, Sanni FS, Talle M, Joseph MB. In vitro antimicrobial activity of water extract of M. oleifera leaf stalk on bacteria normally implicated in eye diseases. AcademArena 2010; 2(6): 80-82.  Back to cited text no. 115
Saadabi AM, Zaid IEA. An in vitro antimicrobial activity of Moringa oleifera L. seed extracts against different groups of microorganisms. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 2011; 5(5): 129-134.  Back to cited text no. 116
Nikkon F, Saud ZA, Rehman MH, Haque ME. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the compound isolated from chloroform extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Pak J Biol Sci 2003; 6(22):1888–1890.  Back to cited text no. 117
Viera GHF, MourAo JA, Angelo AM, Costa RA, Vieira RHSDF. Antibacterial effect (in vitro) of Moringa oleifera and Annona muricata against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2010; 52(3): 129-132.  Back to cited text no. 118


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

This article has been cited by
1 Beneficial Health Effects of Glucosinolates-Derived Isothiocyanates on Cardiovascular and Neurodegenerative Diseases
Ramla Muhammad Kamal, Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis, Nurul Syafuhah Mohd Sukri, Enoch Kumar Perimal, Hafandi Ahmad, Rollin Patrick, Florence Djedaini-Pilard, Emanuela Mazzon, Sébastien Rigaud
Molecules. 2022; 27(3): 624
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 A Comprehensive Review with Updated Future Perspectives on the Ethnomedicinal and Pharmacological Aspects of Moringa oleifera
Ummi Kalthum Azlan, Ahmed Mediani, Emelda Rosseleena Rohani, Xiaohui Tong, Rongchun Han, Norazlan Mohmad Misnan, Faidruz Azura Jam, Hamidun Bunawan, Murni Nazira Sarian, Hamizah Shahirah Hamezah
Molecules. 2022; 27(18): 5765
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs): Emerging Plant and Microbial Sources, Oxidative Stability, Bioavailability, and Health Benefits—A Review
Ramesh Kumar Saini, Parchuri Prasad, Reddampalli Venkataramareddy Sreedhar, Kamatham Akhilender Naidu, Xiaomin Shang, Young-Soo Keum
Antioxidants. 2021; 10(10): 1627
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Investigation on the biofilm eradication potential of selected medicinal plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Lakshmana Prabu S.,Umamaheswari A.,Grace Felciya S.J.
Biotechnology Reports. 2020; 28: e00523
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) receptor as potential drug target for inhibiting methanogenesis in horses using Moringa oleifera L.: An in silico docking study
Ameer Khusro,Chirom Aarti,Abdelfattah Z.M. Salem,Alberto B. Pliego,Raymundo R. Rivas-Caceres
Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 2020; : 102949
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  2. Moringa ol...
  In this article
1. Introduction
3. Conclusions
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded728    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 5    

Recommend this journal